Studies and research made on PSP
A new type of biological response modifier (BRM)
Pharmacodynamic studies prove that PSP has a very obvious effect of strengthening health and energy to eliminate substances and is a new type of BRM
Yun Zhi, commonly known as coriolus versicolor, is a wonderful remedy for health and healing. Yun Zhi’s shelf-like fruiting bodies form dense, overlapping clusters on tree trunks. The mushroom caps have plush velvety surfaces and are coloured in varying shades of brown or gray, with a distinctive alternating-band pattern of light and dark colours. Many international journals support the positive effects of Yun Zhi on health. Nowadays, many medical and nutritional studies find that the key active ingredient of Yun Zhi, polysaccharides, has greatly contribute to, relieving pain, improve immune functions, reduced anti- asphyxia, and enhance cell regeneration. According to experiments, polysaccharides can also help promote anti-tumors without negative side effects.
Cloud mushroom contains several saccharides including polysaccharide peptide (PSP) and polysaccharide-K (PSK, krestin). The protein bound polysaccharides have been found to be immune-modulating and anti-tumor, and their polypeptide moieties are rich in aspartic acid and glutamic acid. By gas chromatography and HPLC, PSP has proved that in addition to glucose, it also contains five other monosaccharides – mannose, xylose, galactose, rhamnose and arabinose. The polysaccharide peptides can be found in the mycelium, while the fruiting body mainly contains polysaccharides
Yun zhi (Cloud Mushroom) PSP Extract
West Nile Virus and Yun zhi PSP
Now that it seems the worse of the SARS virus is over, a new virus is now being tested for its possible spread in the Lower Mainland. Last year, West Nile Virus was detected in the American states of Idaho, Montana, and Washington. It is expected this year that migrating birds will bring the virus into BC this summer.
West Nile Virus is a disease that is carried by birds, such as crows and ravens. However, it can be transmitted between birds and humans by mosquitoes. Now that warmer weather is approaching there is concern that the virus will spread. Protecting yourself against the spread of this infection can come in many forms. Among those are long sleeved shirts and pants, DEET-based mosquito repellent, and controlling the areas where mosquitoes can breed. The first line of defense however, is the one that everyone was born with – your immune system. The immune system is a vital part of any organism, and protects against invasion by viruses, bacteria, pollen, and other forms of infection. Without a healthy immune system, the body is unable to fight off infections, leading to symptoms that can include fever, body aches, and a rash.
Once a microorganism enters the body, it can multiply, and be toxic to the body’s biochemistry and other organs, or the multiplying microorganism can produce toxins to make the body ill. A healthy immune system will hopefully recognize the presence of these microorganisms as “foreign”, and immediately mobilize itself to produce white blood cells, antibodies, and other proteins to identify and destroy the invading foreign infectious agents.
For most people with healthy immune systems, these symptoms of West Nile Virus will usually disappear after about a week. However, one percent of those affected could experience more severe symptoms, such as confusion, headaches and paralysis, if their immune system cannot learn how to make the antibodies and other biochemicals that are needed to destroy the infecting virus. These people could then develop further complications such as meningitis or encephalitis. Ten percent of those people could die from the disease.
A weakened immune system can be caused by a combination of factors that can include stress, environment, aging, depression, and/or recent illness. Increasingly, many people are paying attention to what is called an alternative approach to health. It essentially involves taking care of the body, particularly the immune system, so that the body can take care of disease.
One approach can be the use of herbal remedies such as Yun zhi mushroom extract. It is only relatively recently that the world has become aware of the immuno-modulating properties of Yun zhi polysaccharides, but extensive research and clinical trials have shown that the regular use of natural Yun zhi can be effective in improving immune system function and response by increasing components of the immune system such as white blood cells, T-cells and B-cells.
Yun zhi polysaccharides have been used in the treatment of cancer and hepatitis in China and Japan for years. Patients who have used natural Yun zhi report increased strength and well-being, increased resistance to colds, flu, reduced fatigue and nausea, as well as regaining a normal appetite. Boosting the immune system through the regular use of natural Yun zhi could therefore provide increased protection against the threat of the West Nile Virus.
Qing-yao Yang1, Ji-nian Fang2, Xiu-ping Qian1 Xiao-tong Yang1, Ping Yuan1, Ke Mi1 and Hui-qin Feng1 1 Shanghai Teachers University 2 Institute of Materia Medica, Academia Sinica
After Yun Zhi mycelia or fruitbodies are extracted by hot water and precipitated by alcohol, the Yun Zhi mycelium extract (MWA) or Yun Zhi fruitbody extract (FWA) is obtained. Then they are respectively developed by anthrone and phenolsulfate, and an analysis is made by means of ultraviolet/visible light spectra. The result shows that the maximum absorption wavelengths of MWA are 420 and 487nm respectively and those of FWA are 671 and 486 respectively. After the water solution of MWA is developed by ninhydrin, we see that its maximum absorption wavelength is 586nm; but there is no obvious absorption of FWA. Through a comparison of the infrared spectra of MWA and FWA, we discover that there is an obvious absorption of MWA at 1380nm, while there is no obvious absorption of FWA at that place. By phenol suplfate and Lowry methods to determine the contents of polysaccharide and protein, we find that the glucose contents of MWA and FWA are 36% and 48% respectively and the protein contents are 33% and 21% respectively. With a rotatory instrument to measure the specific rotatory power of MWA and FWA, we find that MWA is -0.04 and that of FWA is -0.69. With DEAE-cellulose for column chromatography, we find that the eluant of MWA contains 3 kinds of monosaccharide: galactose, mannose and rhamnose while that of FWA contains only 2 kinds of monosaccharide: galactose and rhamnose. The 0-2 mol of eluant of MWA contains 6 monosaccharide: glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose while that of FWA contains 5 monosaccharide: glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose. The main ingredient of FWA is not absorbed on DEAE-cellulose. Its molecular weight is 6200 Da, while that of MWA is absorbed on DEAE-cellulose. its molecular weight is 26000 Da.
These results suggest that the immunological functions of macrophages is related to the activity of glutathione peroxidase. The non-specific immune-polysaccharide might protect macrophages by the damage induced by reactive oxygen species by enhancing anti-oxidative capacity.
Q.Y. Yang, S.C. Yong and X.T. Yang
Shanghai Normal University
PSP is an anticarcinogen and immunological regulator identified as a polysaccharide peptide which has been extracted from the deep layer cultivated mycelia of Coriolus versicolor. Infrared spectrophotometer at wavelenghts of 3432 cm-1, 1621 cm-1 and 1073 cm-1 produces three absorption bands.
The N.M.R. of PSP has the characteristic to show absorption at 1.0-2.5 ppm, 3.0-3.4, 4.5, 5.4 ppm and broad absorption in the region of 3.0-4.3 ppm.
Use spectrophotometer to determine the effluent separated from the column of gel chromatography (Sephadex G-75), The results shown that maximum absorption peaks of polypeptide and polysaccharides are found in the homeo-collecting tubes.
The polysaccharide portion is composed of the five monsaccharides, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose, and fucose. The amino acids most frequently found in the polypeptide are aspartic and glutamic. PSP has no sharply defined fusion point. It is insoluble in methyl alcohol, pryridine, benzene, hexane, and chloroform but is very soluble in hot water. The pH value of its 1% water solution is 6.6. It is heat and light stable. &nbp; When kept at a temperature of 100oC for 48 hours or irradiated with ultraviolet light for 30 hours there is essentially no change in composition. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) the molecular weight has been calculated at about 1×105 Dalton.
(NaturalNews – January 28, 2009) For thousands of years Chinese medicine has prized the mushroom for its energizing and healing properties. Chinese legend is filled with stories of those who discovered the 1,000 year old mushroom and became immortal. In the West, acceptance is based less on tradition and more on the results of the scientific method. Researchers have been busy scientifically documenting what Chinese tradition dictates, that mushrooms are some of the most potent medicines on the plant. Recent research findings have shown the Coriolus versicolor mushroom stands out above the rest for regulating the immune system.
Coriolus versicolor found to be effective against cancer and human papillomavirus
Researchers at the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York tested several botanicals for their immune enhancing activity using a subcutaneous immunization model of cell surface carbohydrate expression in cancer cells in a study published in September, 2008 Vaccine. They found Coriolus versicolor to display consistent and significant immune enhancement activity superior to all other coumpounds tested. The superiority of Coriolus to yeast beta-glucan, maitake, turmeric, echinacea, and preparation H-48 from Honso USA, was described as surprising. Although the exhibited levels of immune enhancing ability of astragalus was also impressive, it was surpassed by that of Coriolus.
The March, 2008 BMC Cancer reports Coriolus versicolor has shown anticancer activity with positive results in the treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. The efficacy of its protein-bound polysaccharide as an immunomodulator is credited. This activity was independent of its previously described immunomodulatory effect on NK cells.
The journal Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy reports double blind trials on 111 patients with colorectal cancer, using Coriolus versicolor. Although traditional medicine offers little help for colon cancer patients, Coriolus showed a remarkable enhancement of the patient’s white blood cells, even in advanced colon cancer cases. The white cells greatly increased natural chemotactic motion and phagocytosis, the ability to scavenge toxins and kill pathogens. Coriolus was also used with patients as a helpful maintenance therapy following cancer surgery.
The results of a year long clinical trial examining the effects of mushroom supplementation in patients with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) were so impressive they were presented in 2008 at the 20th European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynocology. Dr. Silva Couto and his research team found that Coriolus versicolor supplementation over the period of one year substantially increased regression of dysplasia and induced clearance of the high-risk subtypes of the HPV responsible for cervical cancer. Coriolus supplementation demonstrated a 72 percent regression rate in lesions compared to 47.5 percent without supplementation, and a 90 percent regression rate in the high risk HPV virus sub-types compared to 8.5 percent without.
After using the supplement for one year, 72.5 percent of recipients reverted to normal cytology compared with only 47.5 percent of the control group. Coriolus supplementation produced a 90 percent regression rate in the high risk HPV virus sub-tupes compared to an 8.5 percent regression without supplementation.
It is also likely that Coriolus versicolor would be beneficial in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), a precancerous condition in which the cells of the uterine cervix are moderately or severely abnormal. The lead physician of the study noted that the optimal supplementation period may be as short as six months.
Coriolus versicolor modulates autoimmune diseases
T cells belong to a group of while blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. The activation of T helper (Th) cell subsets also plays an important role in immunity. Uncontrolled Th responses lead to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The identification of agents that modulate these helper cells is essential for controlling autoimmune diseases. A study from the November, 2008 Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, reported that polysaccharopeptide (PSP) from Coriolus versicolor exhibited the ability to control aberrant T lymphocyte activation through ciclosporin-like activity. PSP alone suppress production of activated T cells.
What makes Coriolus versicolor special?
Coriolus versicolor, also referred to as the turkey-tail mushroom, contains large quantities of Beta-glucans that act to stimulate the immune system. Coriolus can dramatically regenerate and rejuvenate the body. Its most active medicinal components are biological response modifiers called protein-bound polysaccharides. These polysaccharides are known as Krestin or PSK in Japan, and as Yun zhi, or PSP in China. There have been reports of cases of Bell’s palsy clearing up with use of Coriolus for just a few days. Others have found it effective against bronchitis.
Other studies have shown that Coriolus can double the number of natural killer cells after only 8 weeks of treatment. Coriolus has also been found to help patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and may be an effective treatment for Lyme disease.
More research documents the anti-tumor benefits of Coriolus
Japanese researchers screened 200 of the best phytochemicals (plant extracts) known for anti-tumor activity. Coriolus versicolor was designated as exhibiting the greatest amount of anti-tumor activity. In another Japanese study, 185 people with lung cancer at different stages were given radiation. Doctors found those who also took Coriolus showed the best tumor shrinkage and the best survival rate. Another study involving stomach cancer patients produced similar results. Those who received Coriolus survived significantly longer, felt better and had fewer side effects.
Coriolus is first line defense against infection
Coriolus is a good centerpiece for your natural medicine chest, even if you are currently the picture of health. When any type of infection strikes, you will be ready. Coriolus can be used to target any infected organ, gland or tissue. Its immune enhancing properties provide an increased response to deal effectively with infections, and do this without over stimulating the immune system.
Clinical Trial Results Show Proof of Concept for Use of Coriolus Versicolor As Immunonutrition in IPV Patients With Cervical Lesions, Medical News Today.
Coriolus Versicolor, University of California, San Diego Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cancer Patients.
About the author
Barbara is a school psychologist, a published author in the area of personal finance, a breast cancer survivor using “alternative” treatments, a born existentialist, and a student of nature and all things natural.
Source: NaturalNews – http://www.naturalnews.com/025455.html
(Daily Herald – 9/8/2008) When it comes to cancer treatment, I believe that we have finally reached a point where we need to seriously consider incorporating mushrooms into the overall medical approach.
A review article outlining the importance of one specific mushroom – Coriolus versicolor – in the treatment of several types of cancer was published in the recent issue of the Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. The article summarizes more than three decades of solid research that showed patients who consumed Coriolus versicolor or one of its extracts during chemotherapy had better survival rates.
The use of mushrooms as a cancer therapy has been common in Asia for many years. Coriolus versicolor is often recommended because of its potent anticancer properties. This particular mushroom grows on the side of trees in many parts of the world, including the U.S. In China, it is called yun zhi (cloud fungus). In the U.S., it is commonly referred to as turkey tail.
Coriolus versicolor is the source of Krestin, arguably the most commonly used anticancer compound in the world. Krestin was first discovered by a Japanese chemical engineer in 1965 and is approved by the Japanese government as an anticancer therapy.
Standard treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy can dramatically reduce the number of cancer cells in a person’s body, but ultimately the immune system is responsible for killing the remaining cancer cells. Mushrooms contain a number of unique long chain sugars called polysaccharides. Polysaccharide recognition is one way that our cells communicate and how natural killer cells differentiate between normal and cancer cells. A number of mushroom polysaccharides, especially from Coriolus versicolor, specifically enhance the activity of natural killer cells.
There is significant research to indicate that extracts from Coriolus versicolor show activity against lung, gastrointestinal and breast cancers, with more than 140 papers published in the medical literature, including 43 human clinical trials.
Although Coriolus versicolor and its extracts appear to be safe, I strongly recommend medical supervision during cancer therapy. In addition, safety in children, pregnant women and those with kidney disease has not been established.
• Dr. Patrick D. Massey, M.D., Ph.D., is medical director for complementary and alternative medicine for Alexian Brothers Hospital Network.
Source: Daily Herald, Chicago – http://www.dailyherald.com/story/print/?id=232976
Mushrooms are known for their nutritional and medicinal value (Breene, 1990) and also for the diversity of bioactive compounds they contain. The mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Yun Zhi) was recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medica by Li Shi Zhen during the Ming Dynasty in China, as being beneficial to health and able to bring longevity if consumed regularly. Various products derived from this mushroom and claimed to have medicinal value are commercially available. Among them, PSK (Sakagami et al., 1991) and PSP are the most prominent. It is the intent of this article to summarize research data pertaining to PSP.
PSK (Sakagami et al., 1991) and PSP are two chemically related products of the mushroom Coriolus versico~or isolated from deeplayer cultivated mycelia of the COV-1 and CM-101 strains, by Chinese and Japanese investigators, respectively. The similarities and differences of the two products have been pointed out by the Fungi Research Institute (1993a). Both possess a molecular weight of approximately 100 kDa and their polypeptide moieties are rich in aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Monosaccharides with o~-1,4 and [3-1,3 glucosidic linkages constitute the pol~saccharide moieties of PSP and PSK: fucose is found in the latter¢ whereas arabinose and rhamnose occur in the former. Both PSP and PSK have been found to be immunoenhancing and effective against tumor cells.
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