Kahraman S, Ye?ilada O.
Department of Science, Faculty of Education, Inonu University, 44069 Malatya, Turkey. email@example.com
White-rot fungi, Coriolus versicolor and Funalia trogii, produced laccase on media with diluted olive-oil mill wastewater and vinasse. Addition of spent cotton stalks enhanced the laccase activity with a maximum after 12 d of cultivation.
PMID: 11501400 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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López MJ, Elorrieta MA, Vargas-García MC, Suárez-Estrella F, Moreno J.
Departamento de Biología Aplicada, CITE II-B, Universidad de Almeria, La Cañada de San Urbano, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
The mineralisation and the humification of organic matter (OM) in sterile horticultural plant wastes inoculated with Coriolus versicolor or Phanerochaete flavido-alba was investigated under different aeration rates in order to determine their efficacy as potential inoculants for composting. The change in elemental composition, lignin content and OM fractions was analysed during a 90-day incubation. Both fungi degraded 30% of lignin at low aeration rates. Different aeration rates led to significant changes in OM mineralisation induced by C. versicolor, but did not have noticeable effect on P. flavido-alba activity. The mineralisation was more effectively carried out by P. flavido-alba than by C. versicolor. Lignin degradation and the linked humification process were equally achieved by the two fungi and were enhanced in aerated conditions. The fungi analysed may facilitate the composting of lignocellulosic wastes by means of an increase in substrate bioavailability and OM humification.
PMID: 11762904 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Fernandez I, Cadisch G.
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College London, Wye Campus, Wye TN25 5AH, UK.
Changes in isotopic 13C signatures of CO2-C evolved during decomposition of a sugar (glucose), a fatty acid (palmitic acid), a protein (albumin), a structural biopolymer (lignin) and bulk plant tissue (aerial shoots from Lolium perenne) were monitored over a period of 76 days. All materials were sterilized and inoculated with either of two different species of white rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Coriolus versicolor, and incubated in sealed bottles at 28 degrees C. The CO2 concentration in the jars was periodically determined using an infrared gas analyzer and its isotopic (13C) signature was assessed using a trace gas (ANCA TGII) module coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS, Europa 20-20). L. perenne material inoculated with C. versicolor showed the highest C mineralization activity with approximately 70% of total C evolved as CO2 after 76 days of incubation, followed by glucose. Substrates inoculated with C. versicolor generally decomposed faster than when degraded by P. chrysosporium, except for lignin, where no significant differences between the two fungi types were found and CO2-C released was less than 2% of the initial C. Considerable 13C isotopic fractionation during the degradation of plant tissue and of pure biochemical compounds was revealed as well as progressive shifts in cumulative CO2-13C isotopic signatures over time. During the first stages of decomposition, the CO2-C released was usually depleted in 13C as compared with the initial solid substrate, but with ongoing decomposition the CO2-C evolved became progressively more enriched in 13C. P. chrysosporium usually showed a slightly higher 13C fractionation than C. versicolor during the first decomposition phase. At posterior decomposition stages isotopic discrimination was often stronger by C. versicolor. These findings on isotopic 13C discrimination during microbial degradation both of simple biochemical compounds and of complex vegetal tissue confirmed not only the existence of significant 13C isotopic fractionation during plant residue decomposition, but also the existence of non-random isotopic distribution within substrates. They also demonstrated the ability of microorganisms to selectively discriminate against 13C even when degrading an isolated simple substrate.
PMID: 14648898 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Driessel BV, Christov L.
Sappi Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa.
Bleach plant effluents from the pulp and paper industry generated during bleaching with chlorine-containing chemicals are highly colored and also partly toxic due to the presence of chloro-organics, hence the need for pretreatment prior to discharge. In a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor effluent decolorization was studied using Coriolus versicolor, a white-rot fungus and Rhizomucor pusillus strain RM7, a mucoralean fungus. Decolorization by both fungi was directly proportional to initial color intensities. It was found that the extent of decolorization was not adversely affected by color intensity, except at the lowest level tested. It was shown that decolorization of 53 to 73% could be attained using a hydraulic retention time of 23 h. With R. pusillus, 55% of AOX were removed compared to 40% by C. versicolor. Fungal treatment with both R. pusillus and C. versicolor rendered the effluent essentially nontoxic. Addition of glucose to decolorization media stimulated color removal by C. versicolor, but not with R. pusillus. Ligninolytic enzymes (manganese peroxidase and laccase) were only detected in effluent treated by C. versicolor. It seems that there are definite differences in the decoloring mechanisms between the white-rot fungus (adsorption + biodegradation) and the mucoralean fungus (adsorption). This aspect needs to be investigated in greater detail to verify the mode responsible for the decolorization activity in both types of fungi.
PMID: 16233095 [PubMed]Free Article
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Levin L, Melignani E, Ramos AM.
Lab. de Micología Experimental, Dpto. de Biodiversidad y Biología Experimental, Fac. Cs. Exactas y Naturales, PROPLAME – PRHIDEB – CONICET, Universidad de Buenos Aires, C1428EHA Ciudad Universitaria, CABA, Argentina. email@example.com
The effect of amino acids, complex nitrogen sources and vitamin addition on Trametes trogii, Trametes villosa and Coriolus versicolor var. antarcticus ligninolytic enzyme production, was evaluated. Dye decolorization by their culture filtrates was compared. Glutamic acid followed by peptone, were the best N sources for laccase and manganese peroxidase production. The three fungi produced two laccase isoenzymes (molecular weights from 38 up to 150 kDa); their pattern of production was not affected by medium composition. Although the response was not uniform, vitamin addition sometimes stimulated ligninolytic enzyme production, but never inhibited it. Thiamine induced manganese peroxidase production. T. trogii grown in glutamic acid produced culture filtrates with the highest laccase (188.3 U/ml) and manganese peroxidase activities (4.5 U/ml), rendering the best results in decolorization. These crude filtrates were able to decolorize in half hour (at pH 4.5, 30 degrees C): 13%, 23%, 40%, 46%, 82%, 94% and 95% of Gentian Violet, Xylidine, Congo Red, Malachite Green, Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Indigo Carmine and Anthraquinone Blue, respectively.
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