Baya M, Soulounganga P, Gelhaye E, Gérardin P.
Laboratoire d’Etudes et de Recherches sur le Matériau Bois, UMR INRA 1093, Equipe de Chimie Organique et Microbiologie, Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy I, Faculté des Sciences, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
The fungicidal activity of analogues of beta-thujaplicin, a natural product responsible for the durability of heartwood of several cupressaceous trees, was investigated in vitro on the growth of different white and brown rot fungi involved in wood biodegradation, Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Poria placenta and Gloephyllum trabeum. The study shows that 2-hydroxycyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone (tropolone), easily prepared according to a literature procedure, possesses interesting fungicidal activity when compared to beta-thujaplicin, azaconazole, tebuconazole and copper oxine, which suggests this compound should be examined further as a potential biocide for wood preservation.
PMID: 11561410 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Fernandez I, Cadisch G.
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College London, Wye Campus, Wye TN25 5AH, UK.
Changes in isotopic 13C signatures of CO2-C evolved during decomposition of a sugar (glucose), a fatty acid (palmitic acid), a protein (albumin), a structural biopolymer (lignin) and bulk plant tissue (aerial shoots from Lolium perenne) were monitored over a period of 76 days. All materials were sterilized and inoculated with either of two different species of white rot fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Coriolus versicolor, and incubated in sealed bottles at 28 degrees C. The CO2 concentration in the jars was periodically determined using an infrared gas analyzer and its isotopic (13C) signature was assessed using a trace gas (ANCA TGII) module coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS, Europa 20-20). L. perenne material inoculated with C. versicolor showed the highest C mineralization activity with approximately 70% of total C evolved as CO2 after 76 days of incubation, followed by glucose. Substrates inoculated with C. versicolor generally decomposed faster than when degraded by P. chrysosporium, except for lignin, where no significant differences between the two fungi types were found and CO2-C released was less than 2% of the initial C. Considerable 13C isotopic fractionation during the degradation of plant tissue and of pure biochemical compounds was revealed as well as progressive shifts in cumulative CO2-13C isotopic signatures over time. During the first stages of decomposition, the CO2-C released was usually depleted in 13C as compared with the initial solid substrate, but with ongoing decomposition the CO2-C evolved became progressively more enriched in 13C. P. chrysosporium usually showed a slightly higher 13C fractionation than C. versicolor during the first decomposition phase. At posterior decomposition stages isotopic discrimination was often stronger by C. versicolor. These findings on isotopic 13C discrimination during microbial degradation both of simple biochemical compounds and of complex vegetal tissue confirmed not only the existence of significant 13C isotopic fractionation during plant residue decomposition, but also the existence of non-random isotopic distribution within substrates. They also demonstrated the ability of microorganisms to selectively discriminate against 13C even when degrading an isolated simple substrate.
PMID: 14648898 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Tripathi MK, Mishra AS, Misra AK, Vaithiyanathan S, Prasad R, Jakhmola RC.
Division of Animal Nutrition, Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute, Avikanagar, Rajasthan, India. email@example.com
AIMS: Selection of white-rot fungi of bio-conversion of mustard straw (MS) into feed for ruminants.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Mustard straw was cultured with Ganoderma applanatum, Coriolus versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium for solid-state fermentation at 35 degrees C from 7 to 63 days for delignification and for 21 days to study dry matter digestibility and protein enrichment. Lignin loss in fungus cultured straw varied between 100 and 470 g kg(-1) lignin. Delignification was higher between 7 and 28 days fermentation with C. versicolor. Among the three fungi P. chrysosporium was the most effective in degrading lignin for longer fermentation. In-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and crude protein content was higher in C. versicolor cultured straw. Large quantity of straw was cultured by C. versicolor for 21 days, for in vivo evaluation. Mean pH and metabolites of rumen fermentation were not different while, pH and volatile fatty acid increased at 6 h postfermentation on cultured straw feeding. Cultured straw fermentation increased (P = 0.001) small holotricks and reduced (P = 0.005) large holotricks population. Fungus cultures straw did not improve microbial enzyme concentration.
CONCLUSIONS: Coriolus versicolor and P. chrysosporium were the promising fungus for MS bio-delignification.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Coriolus versicolor treated MS improved dry matter digestibility and protein content.
PMID: 18266643 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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