L.Z. Xu Laboratory of Pathology Cancer Institute, Shanghai Medical University
In the present study the anti-cancer effect of polysaccharide peptide of Coriolus versicolor Cov-1 (PSP) was compared with polysaccharide peptide of Coriolus versicolor CM-101 (PSK) on four human tumor cell line targets (SGC 7901, stomach cancer cell; SPC, human lung adenocarcinoma cell; SLY, human monocytic leukemia cell and Mei, human skin histiocytic lymphoma cell) in Vitro.
PSP had similar cytotoxic effects upon human tumor cells as PSK, both inhibiting cell growth. In comparison with control specimens, the SPC cell line treated with PSP (1000ug/ml) for 72 hours at 37oC showed marked morphological changes such as cell swelling, chromatin aggregation, formation of polynuclear cells and sawtooth on the surface of cell nuclei.
PSK as a new immunomodulative drug had been widely used for clinical anticancer therapy in Japan. When combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical operation, PSK is found to be able to improve the therapeutic effects. In 1983, a polysaccharide peptide of Coriolus versicolor Cov-1 was isolated from the mycelia by Qing-yao Yang. It is possessed of physio-chemical characteristics similar to PSK and designated as PSP. In the present study the anti-cancer effect of PSP was compared with PSK using four human tumor cell line targets in vitro.
Breakspear Hospital, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, United Kingdom. firstname.lastname@example.org
Cancer has been attributed to 3 causes: pollution, infection, and poor nutrition. Conventional treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The author proposes that immunotherapy also be considered. Among other environmental influences, dietary deficiencies and carcinogenic viral infections must be investigated and treated wherever possible. It has been suggested that mushrooms, in particular, have a structure that is immunomodulatory because it resembles the proteoglycan structure in the human extracellular matrix, and both are metabolically active. Inasmuch as mitochondria have a bacterial origin, proteoglycans may have a mushroom origin. The author describes a study which shows that natural killer cells can double in number with 8 wk of treatment with Coriolus versicolor. Also described is an epidemiological survey of cancer deaths among Flammulina velutipes farmers in Japan, which found that the mushroom farmers had lower rates of cancer deaths than controls who were not involved in mushroom farming?
W.C. Xue and T.F. Liu
Cancer Hospital, Shanghai Medical University
There is no really effective treatment for moderate and advanced stages of esophageal
carcinoma. Although surgery for the earlier cases has been able to give a 5 years survival
rate of 28.7%, such operable cases are relatively few. By far the greater majority are
already in stage III to IV when first seen in the clinic, and radiotherapy alone in these cases
has given a 5 years survival rate of only 8-14%. In order to improve treatment results, a
variety of chemotherapeutic agents have been used in combination surgery, but so far no
really effective drug has been found.
The drug PSP (polysaccharide-peptide of Coriolus versicolor) has been discovered and
produced by Professor Qing-yao Yang of. It is a new anti-cancer and immuno-regulatory
drug, similar to PSK (Krestin) but the effective component has been found to be larger
than PSK. Experimental data has proved these properties of PSP, and in vitro as well as
in vivo studies have all proved that PSP is superior to PSK. Of course, as is the case with
all new drugs, the ultimate proof of its value will have to be shown by clinical application.
Data on Krestin suggest that this family of drugs when used in combination with
radiotherapy, there might be an increase of the biological effects of radiation. To do a
pilot study on such a possibility, the authors have treated 41 moderate to advanced cases of
esophageal carcinoma with a combination of PSP and radiotherapy.
The protein-bound polysaccharide preparation, PS-K, isolated from a mushroom, Coriolus versicolor, was found to stimulate human lymphocytes and induce them into blastogenesis in vitro. This stimulatory effect seemed to be nonspecific since lymphocytes from cord blood of newborn babies were also stimulated by PS-K. The highest lymphocyte blastogenesis by PS-K was observed after 5 days in culture.
PSK is a protein-bound polysaccharide prepared from cultured mycelium of Coriolus versicolor. The effects of PSK on immunologic responsiveness were investigated in C3H/He mice bearing syngeneic X5563 tumor. The results were as follows. elayed foot pad reaction and antibody-forming capacity to sheep erythrocytes were depressed in tumor bearing mice, and such depression was prevented by oral or intraperitoneal administration of PSK. In vitro cytotoxic activity of splenic lymphocytes against the tumor was augmented by PSK administration. Antitumor effect was augmented by combination of PSK and X-irradiation. Delayed foot pad reaction to sheep erythrocytes was suppressed in normal C3H/He mice given immunosuppressive substance obtained from tumor-bearing mice, and the depressed reaction recovered to the normal level following PSK administration. These results show that PSK is effective in the syngeneic murine tumor system.
Biomedical Research Laboratories, Kureha Chemical Industry, Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan.
We investigated the effect of PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide obtained from Coriolus versicolor of basidiomycetes, on antitumor immunity in tumor-bearing mice. PSK prolonged significantly the life span of C3H/He mice bearing syngeneic plasmacytoma X5563 in a schedule- and dose-dependent manner. PSK was most effective when administered at 100 mg/kg every other day ten times starting from the day after tumor inoculation. The administration of PSK enhanced significantly the cytostatic activity of peritoneal exudate plastic-adherent cells and the cytolytic activity of spleen cells after in vitro incubation with mitomycin C-treated tumor cells. In addition, PSK restored the cytokine-producing capacity of spleen cells suppressed in tumor-bearing mice after in vitro incubation with mitogen. Sera from tumor-bearing mice suppressed the activity of such effector cells as well as the interleukin 2-producing capacity of spleen cells, but sera from PSK-treated tumor-bearing mice prevented this suppression. These results suggest that PSK enhances antitumor immunity by reducing immunosuppressive activity of serum from tumor-bearing mice.
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Kotasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) expresses the mimicking activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Examination was made of the suppressive effects of PS-K on cancer cell lines cultured in vitro. The SOD activity of LLC-WRC-256 (Walker 256 fibrosarcoma) cell lines was less than that of NRK-49F (rat normal kidney fibroblast), H4-II-E (rat hepatoma) and H4-II-E-C3 (rat hepatoma) cell lines. This activity in Walker 256 fibrosarcoma cells increased by 3.6 times and H2O2 concentration, by 2.56 times by PS-K 500 micrograms/ml. Cell proliferation was consequently suppressed and living cells decreased to less than 50% of the cells cultured without PS-K. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity changed little by PS-K. The sensitivity of cancer cells to PS-K can be predetermined based on SOD activity in tumor tissue.
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) expresses superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimicking activity. Examination was made of the suppressive effects of PS-K on cancer cell lines cultured in vitro. SOD activity of incorporated PS-K was 5.88 u/mg in LLC-WRC-256 (Walker 256 fibrosarcoma) cells and 4.73 u/mg in NRK-49F (rat normal kidney fibroblast) cells. SOD activity in both cell types was enhanced about 7-8 times that of the original PS-K. PS-K was not incorporated into H4-11-E or H4-11-E-C3 (rat hepatoma) cells. SOD activity of 1 mg/ml PS-K incubated with cell homogenates of LLC-WRC-256 cells for 6 hours increased from 0.68 u/mg to 1.35 u/mg. SOD activity of PS-K 1 mg/ml in 0.05 M phosphate buffer incubated with 50 microM NADPH increased from 0.68 u/mg. The consumption of NADPH at the same concentration was confirmed spectrophotometically by incubation with PS-K. The mechanism for the enhancement of SOD activity associated with PS-K is considered to be collaboration with NADPH as an electron donor in the cytoplasm of cancer cells whose SOD and coupling enzyme activities are significantly lower than in normal cells.
Kureha Chemical Ind. Co., Ltd., Biomedical Research Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan.
The antitumor effects of a monoclonal antibody against a human cancer cell line and a protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes were examined. The IgG2a monoclonal antibody against the human colon cancer cell line colo 205 induced in vitro antibody-dependent macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity against the cancer cells, but only slightly suppressed the in vivo growth of the cancer cells. Concurrent use of PSK with the antibody enhanced the in vitro antibody-dependent macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity as well as the in vivo antitumor activity. These findings suggest that the combined use of a monoclonal antibody and PSK, which have different modes of action, may be useful in the treatment of cancer.
Division of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Changan-ku, Chunchun-dong, Kyunggi-do, Suwon 440-746, Korea.
A plant polysaccharide, Aloe gel extract, was reported to have an inhibitory effect on benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P)-DNA adduct formation in vitro and in vivo. Hence, chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides [Aloe barbadensis Miller (APS), Lentinus edodes (LPS), Ganoderma lucidum (GPS) and Coriolus versicolor (CPS)] were compared using in vitro short-term screening methods associated with both initiation and promotion processes in carcinogenesis. In B[a]P-DNA adduct formation, APS (180 micrograms/ml) was the most effective in inhibition of B[a]P binding to DNA in mouse liver cells. Oxidative DNA damage (by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) was significantly decreased by APS (180 micrograms/ml) and CPS (180 micrograms/ml). In induction of glutathione S-transferase activity, GPS was found to be the most effective among plant polysaccharides. In screening anti-tumor promoting effects, APS (180 micrograms/ml) significantly inhibited phorbol myristic acetate (PMA)-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity in Balb/3T3 cells. In addition, APS significantly inhibited PMA-induced tyrosine kinase activity in human leukemic cells. APS and CPS significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation. These results suggest that some plant polysaccharides produced both anti-genotoxic and anti-tumor promoting activities in in vitro models and, therefore, might be considered as potential agents for cancer chemoprevention.
PMID: 10426820 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article