Wu D, Han SN, Bronson RT, Smith DE, Meydani SN.
Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
Decline in immune response is a well-documented age-associated biological change. Protein-bound polysaccharides (PSP) are biological response modifiers and have been shown to have immunoenhancing and antitumor effects. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation with PSP-containing extract derived from mycelia of Coriolus versicolor on in vitro and in vivo indices of immune function of young and old mice. Young (5 mo) and old (23 mo) C57BL/6NIA mice were fed purified diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0% PSP for 1 mo at which time indices of immune function were measured. PSP supplementation had no significant effect on mitogenic response to concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or on production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL- 4 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Of the in vivo indices of immune function tested, old mice fed 1.0% PSP had significantly higher delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response than those fed 0% PSP. No significant effect of PSP was observed on the DTH response of young mice. The antibody response to sheep red blood cells was not significantly influenced by PSP in young or old mice. These results suggest that PSP-containing extract from mycelia of Coriolus versicolor might have a modest immunoenhancing effect in aged mice, but not in young mice.
PMID: 9446842 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]Free Article
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Hsieh TC, Wu P, Park S, Wu JM.
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA. Tze-Chen_Hsieh@nymc.edu
BACKGROUND: I’m-Yunity (PSP) is a mushroom extract derived from deep-layer cultivated mycelia of the patented Cov-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor (CV), which contains as its main bioactive ingredient a family of polysaccharo-peptide with heterogeneous charge properties and molecular sizes. I’m-Yunity (PSP) is used as a dietary supplement by cancer patients and by individuals diagnosed with various chronic diseases. Laboratory studies have shown that I’m-Yunity (PSP) enhances immune functions and also modulates cellular responses to external challenges. Recently, I’m-Yunity (PSP) was also reported to exert potent anti-tumorigenic effects, evident by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. We investigate the mechanisms by which I’m-Yunity (PSP) elicits these effects.
METHODS: Human leukemia HL-60 and U-937 cells were incubated with increasing doses of aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity (PSP). Control and treated cells were harvested at various times and analyzed for changes in: (1) cell proliferation and viability, (2) cell cycle phase transition, (3) induction of apoptosis, (4) expression of cell cycle, apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic, and extracellular regulatory proteins.
RESULTS: Aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity (PSP) inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HL-60 and U-937 cells, accompanied by a cell type-dependent disruption of the G1/S and G2/M phases of cell cycle progression. A more pronounced growth suppression was observed in treated HL-60 cells, which was correlated with time- and dose-dependent down regulation of the retinoblastoma protein Rb, diminution in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins bcl-2 and survivin, increase in apoptogenic proteins bax and cytochrome c, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) from its native 112-kDa form to the 89-kDa truncated product. Moreover, I’m-Yunity (PSP)-treated HL-60 cells also showed a substantial decrease in p65 and to a lesser degree p50 forms of transcription factor NF-kappaB, which was accompanied by a reduction in the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). I’m-Yunity (PSP) also elicited an increase in STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription) and correspondingly, decrease in the expression of activated form of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase).
CONCLUSION: Aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity (PSP) induces cell cycle arrest and alterations in the expression of apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic and extracellular signaling regulatory proteins in human leukemia cells, the net result being suppression of proliferation and increase in apoptosis. These findings may contribute to the reported clinical and overall health effects of I’m-Yunity (PSP).
PMID: 16965632 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC1574346Free PMC Article
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