Studies and research made on PSP
A new type of biological response modifier (BRM)
Pharmacodynamic studies prove that PSP has a very obvious effect of strengthening health and energy to eliminate substances and is a new type of BRM
Mushrooms have traditionally been valued in Asia for their nutritional and medicinal qualities. The Coriolus versicolor or “Turkey Tail” mushroom has been investigated in numerous laboratory, animal and human clinical studies. Most of these studies have demonstrated that it does appear to have significant antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor properties when used as a supplement to chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Human trials have included randomization, a process that decreases bias, but only one has used blinding, which would make them even more protected against biases.
The anti-cancer and immune stimulating properties of Coriolus versicolor have been attributed to two extracts from its cultured mycelium (thread-like extensions). These extracts are both protein-bound polysaccharides known as polysaccharide K (PSK) and polysaccharide-peptide (PSP). Hot water is required to extract these active components.
Yun Zhi, commonly known as coriolus versicolor, is a wonderful remedy for health and healing. Yun Zhi’s shelf-like fruiting bodies form dense, overlapping clusters on tree trunks. The mushroom caps have plush velvety surfaces and are coloured in varying shades of brown or gray, with a distinctive alternating-band pattern of light and dark colours. Many international journals support the positive effects of Yun Zhi on health. Nowadays, many medical and nutritional studies find that the key active ingredient of Yun Zhi, polysaccharides, has greatly contribute to, relieving pain, improve immune functions, reduced anti- asphyxia, and enhance cell regeneration. According to experiments, polysaccharides can also help promote anti-tumors without negative side effects.
PSK is currently used as an immuno therapeutic agent for gastric colorectal, and lung cancers in Japan. It has virtually no adverse effects, and it can be administered P. over a long term. Consequently, its use need not be limited to the treatment of Cancer, and, as our previous paper suggested, it should in the future prove valuable as a general chemopreventive agent and, as this review shows, as anti metastatic agent. The principal mechanisms of PSK may act as an inhibitor of the motility, invasion, and progression of tumor cells, in addition to its role as an immunomodulator.
Antimetastatic Effects of PSK (Krestin), a Protein-bound Polysaccharide Obtained from Basidiomycetes: An Overview….. View more here:
Cheuk-Lun Lee, Xiaotong Yang, Jennifer Man-Fan Wan
Department of Zoology, Kardoorie Biological Science Building, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China
Received 24 December 2003; accepted 5 October 2004
Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) derives from the medicinal mushroom Coriolus versicolor is considered a biological response modifier with potential pharmaceutical applications. Significant literatures support the immune and anticancer functions of PSP; however, standardization is of big concern because variable biotechnological factors can affect both the chemical and biological properties of PSP. In this study, the extracts of PSP obtained at different days from the Coriolus versicolor culture were tested in vitro for their immune function on human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cytotoxicity on the human leukemia Molt 4 cells. Over the 10-days culture period, both biomass and peptide/polysaccharide content were increased with time. The increase in proliferation index of PBMC and their production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1_), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-_) and gamma interferon (IFN-_) in the presence of PHA strengthens the correlation between culture duration and biological potency of PSP. The growth inhibition of the Molt 4 cells by PSP also depended on its maturity. Flow cytometry analysis on cell cycle and cell death (apoptosis) of Molt 4 cells indicated that the anticancer mechanism of PSP is related to its ability to induce S-phase cell arrest and apoptosis, respectively. Together, these results suggest that monitor the harvest duration is critical for the quality control of polysaccharopeptide in the biotechnological industry.
© 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Coriolus versicolor; Polysaccharopeptide; Flow cytometry; High performance liquid chromatography; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Molt 4
Brenda Koker says:
I recently discovered in March 2010 that I had a very high C – reactive protein level of 20.4. The normal range for this level is below 3. I was diagnosed in July 2004 with having been exposed to the West Nile Virus and I knew I had been sick allot and running a elevated temperature for months visiting the urgent care department every 6 weeks and taking antibiotics. I would no more be off the antibiotics for a week to 10 days and I was right back to seeing the doctors at urgent care. The doctors had put me through a series of test and scans to determine the point of origin of the inflammation, with no success. After appearing on a local TV show and following the advice of the doctor to help take some weight off and become healthier. I realized this alone was not going to help me reduce the inflammation in my body. With three months of a strict diet and exercise program my C – reactive protein level had only dropped 3.4 points to 17. Fortunately with being a distributer through InLife and believing in the products, Inforce was released in August. After receiving my first shipment of Inforce I started taking 1 capsule in the morning and 1 in the evening every day. I had more lab work done two months after taking my first dose of Inforce and my level had dropped to 13, so 4 points just being on a maintenance dose. My husband and I went down to an InLife training on September 11 th and heard additional testimonies on how Inforce was helping others with their medical issues. After hearing how much of inforce they were taking I decided to triple up on my dose to see what the result would have on my C – reactive protein level. I received my lab results Thursday and my level had dropped to 8, so 5 points and this was only in a 30 day period, not over a 60 day period like the last test done. Knowing my diet and exercise regiment had not been as strict the first 90 days as the last 90 days, I know that Inforce has helped strengthen my immune system to where it can fight off this inflammation I have in my body. This last 6 years struggling with my health, catching everything that came my way, that a simple handshake put me in jeopardy of getting sick, with knowing that after the West Nile Virus had ravaged my immune system. I can now be assured, that I can enjoy being around others and not worry about being exposed to common colds or a virus with inForce helping me to strengthen my immune system. Currently Jim and I are taking inforce and recently our Labrador/Golden Retriever at the age of 14 was diagnosed with three tumors and with her age the vet stated just keep her comfortable that she is too old to go through surgery and most likely would bring on additional infections. So we decided to put Little Bear on inForce, she has been on it for a month now and we are monitoring her to see if Inforce would help strengthen her immune system also.
Published: 11 September 2006
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006, 6:30 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-30
Received: 13 April 2006
Accepted: 11 September 2006
This article is available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/6/30
© 2006 Hsieh et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: I’m-Yunity™ (PSP) is a mushroom extract derived from deep-layer cultivated mycelia of the patented Cov-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor (CV), which contains as its main bioactive ingredient a family of polysaccharo-peptide with heterogeneous charge properties and molecular sizes. I’m-Yunity™ (PSP) is used as a dietary supplement by cancer patients and by individuals diagnosed with various chronic diseases. Laboratory studies have shown that I’m-Yunity™ (PSP) enhances immune functions and also modulates cellular responses to external challenges. Recently, I’m-Yunity™ (PSP) was also reported to exert potent anti-tumorigenic effects, evident by suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. We investigate the mechanisms by which I’m-Yunity™ (PSP) elicits these effects.
Methods: Human leukemia HL-60 and U-937 cells were incubated with increasing doses of aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity™ (PSP). Control and treated cells were harvested at various times and analyzed for changes in: (1) cell proliferation and viability, (2) cell cycle phase transition, (3) induction of apoptosis, (4) expression of cell cycle, apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic, and extracellular regulatory proteins.
Results: Aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity™ (PSP) inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HL- 60 and U-937 cells, accompanied by a cell type-dependent disruption of the G1/S and G2/M phases of cell cycle progression. A more pronounced growth suppression was observed in treated HL-60 cells, which was correlated with time- and dose-dependent down regulation of the retinoblastoma protein Rb, diminution in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins bcl-2 and survivin, increase in apoptogenic proteins bax and cytochrome c, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) from its native 112-kDa form to the 89-kDa truncated product. Moreover, I’m-Yunity™ (PSP)-treated HL-60 cells also showed a substantial decrease in p65 and to a lesser degree p50 forms of transcription factor NF-?B, which was accompanied by a reduction in the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). I’m-Yunity™ (PSP) also elicited an increase in STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription) and correspondingly, decrease in the expression of activated form of ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase).
Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity™ (PSP) induces cell cycle arrest and alterations in the\ expression of apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic and extracellular signaling regulatory proteins in human leukemia cells, the net result being suppression of proliferation and increase in apoptosis. These findings may contribute to the reported clinical and overall health effects of I’m-Yunity™ (PSP).
A polysaccharide preparation isolated from Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Quél. of Basidiomycetes (PSK) predominantly consists of glucan and approximately 25% tightly bound protein. PSK was effective against various allogeneic and syngeneic animal tumors and has been given orally to cancer patients. Various suppressed or enhanced immune responses of tumor-bearing animals were restored to normal levels by the administration of PSK in the tumor models tested. The killer T cell activity was augmented in tumor-bearing mice by intraperitoneal or oral administration of PSK, and there was correlation between the PSK associated antitumor effect and the killer T cell activity. It was found that PSK competed with immunosuppressive substances isolated from tumor-bearing mice and that the intestinal immune system appeared to be modulated by oral administration of PSK. After oral administration of 14C- or 35S-labeled PSK to normal rats, it was found that small or large molecular substances appeared in the serum depending on the time elapsed after administration, an indication that large molecular size products were from the digestive tract.
PMID: 6238674 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Laboratory of Neurobiology, Suzhou Medical College, China.
AIM: The nervous mechanism of the immune potentiating effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides peptides (PSP) was studied in Wistar rats.
METHODS: The unit discharge of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) neurons was recorded extracellularly and the lymphocyte proliferation was measured.
RESULTS: PSP 1 g.kg-1 ig for 5 d increased the T-lymphocytes and promoted T-lymphocyte proliferation in spleen and peripheral blood. This promoting effect of PSP was blocked by MBH lesion. PSP increased the discharge frequency of MBH neurons, but no increase in discharge frequency was observed after treatment of PSP plus immune inhibitor, cyclosporin A.
CONCLUSION: MBH is involved in the immune-potentiating effect of PSP.
PMID: 9812756 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]