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The Physio-Chemical Characteristics of the Polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) of Coriolus versicolor (Yun Zhi)

The polysaccharide portion is composed of the five monsaccharides, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose, and fucose. The amino acids most frequently found in the polypeptide are aspartic and glutamic. PSP has no sharply defined fusion point. It is insoluble in methyl alcohol, pryridine, benzene, hexane, and chloroform but is very soluble in hot water. The pH value of its 1% water solution is 6.6. It is heat and light stable. &nbp; When kept at a temperature of 100oC for 48 hours or irradiated with ultraviolet light for 30 hours there is essentially no change in composition. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) the molecular weight has been calculated at about 1×105 Dalton.[…]

Evaluation of polysaccharopeptide effects against C6 glioma in combination with radiation.

Long-term control of high-grade brain tumors is rarely achieved with current therapeutic regimens. The major goal of this study was to determine whether polysaccharopeptide (PSP), a crude polysaccharide peptide extract derived from Coriolus versicolor, a fungus, could enhance the effects of radiation against glioma cells in culture and in xenografted tumors in vivo. PSP significantly augmented radiation-induced damage to C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. Nude mice injected subcutaneously with the C6 cells were treated with PSP (injected intraperitoneally at 2 mg/injection) and radiation (2 Gy/fraction, 8 Gy in total) using three different time-dose protocols. Tumor volumes were consistently smaller in all treated groups compared to the non-treated tumor-bearing controls except in one group which received PSP prior to tumor implantation. The administration of radiation alone resulted in the slowest tumor progression, whereas PSP alone had no effect. Furthermore, PSP in combination with radiation treatment did not increase radiation efficacy. Natural killer cell, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts in blood and spleen were significantly higher in PSP-treated animals, demonstrating that PSP has protective effects on immunological function. Collectively, these results warrant further investigation to determine if PSP can be effectively utilized to upregulate immune responsiveness in case of neoplasia and other diseases in which immunosuppression is a prominent feature.[…]

Effects of extracts of Coriolus versicolor (I’m-Yunity) on cell-cycle progression and expression of interleukins-1 beta,-6, and -8 in promyelocytic HL-60 leukemic cells and mitogenically stimulated and nonstimulated human lymphocytes.

I’m-Yunity acts selectively in HL-60 leukemic cells, resulting in cell cycle restriction through the G(1)/S checkpoint and the induction of apoptosis.[…]

Differential effect of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract on cytokine production by murine lymphocytes in vitro.

Being one of the commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs, Coriolus versicolor (CV), also named as Yunzhi, was known to possess both anti-tumor and immunopotentiating activities. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of a standardized ethanol-water extract prepared from CV on the proliferation of murine splenic lymphocytes using the MTT assay, and the production of six T helper (Th)-related cytokines using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The results showed that the CV extract significantly augmented the proliferation of murine splenic lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner, maximally by 2.4-fold. Moreover, the production of two Th1-related cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12, in culture supernatants from the CV extract-activated lymphocytes was prominently upregulated at 48 and 72 h. Positive correlations were found between the levels of these two cytokines and the MTT-based proliferative response. In contrast, the production of two other Th1-related cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-gamma and IL-18, was significantly augmented only at 24 h, but not at 48 and 72 h. On the other hand, the levels of two Th2-related cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-6 were undetectable in the culture supernatants of lymphocytes treated with the CV extract. The CV extract was suggested to be a lymphocyte mitogen by differentially enhancing the production of Th1-related cytokines.[…]

Regulatory properties of polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor and its combined effect with ciclosporin on the homeostasis of human lymphocytes.

Collectively, the results reveal certain novel effects of PSP in lymphocyte homoeostasis and suggest potential as a specific immunomodulatory adjuvant for clinical applications in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.[…]

Coriolus Versicolor is Potent Mushroom for Fighting Cancer and Autoimmune Diseases – By: Barbara L. Minton, citizen journalist

(NaturalNews – January 28, 2009) Japanese researchers screened 200 of the best phytochemicals (plant extracts) known for anti-tumor activity. Coriolus versicolor was designated as exhibiting the greatest amount of anti-tumor activity. In another Japanese study, 185 people with lung cancer at different stages were given radiation. Doctors found those who also took Coriolus showed the best tumor shrinkage and the best survival rate. Another study involving stomach cancer patients produced similar results. Those who received Coriolus survived significantly longer, felt better and had fewer side effects. […]

Activation of human natural killer cells by the protein-bound polysaccharide PSK

The protein-bound polysaccharide PSK was tested for the ability to activate human natural killer (NK) cells. When blood lymphocytes and purified CD3-CD16 ÷ large granular lymphocytes (LGL) were treated in vitro overnight with PSK, they demonstrated enhanced NK cell activity against K562. The PSK-activated killer cells also […]