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in vitro

Clinical Experience in the Use of PSP

There is no really effective treatment for moderate and advanced stages of esophageal carcinoma. Although surgery for the earlier cases has been able to give a 5 years survival rate of 28.7%, such operable cases are relatively few. By far the greater majority are already in stage III to IV when first seen in the clinic, and radiotherapy alone in these cases has given a 5 years survival rate of only 8-14%. In order to improve treatment results, a variety of chemotherapeutic agents have been used in combination surgery, but so far no really effective drug has been found […]

Antitumor effects of a refined polysaccharide peptide fraction isolated from Coriolus versicolor: in vitro and in vivo studies.

RPSP, a refined polysaccharide peptide fraction isolated by fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) from the crude powder of total peptide-bound polysaccharides of cultivated Coriolus versicolor Cov-1 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of a human hepatoma cell line (HEPG2) […]

Antitumor Effect of Polysaccharide Peptide of Coriolus versicolor (PSP) and its Mechanism

Polysaccharide peptide of Coriolus versicolor (PSP) is a new anti-tumor and immunomodulating drug. In this paper PSP showed direct inhibition on the cell proliferation of sarcoma 180 in vitro and inhibitory effect on the growth of murine sarcoma 180 in vivo. Owing to its direct cytotoxic effect was not strong, but at lower concentrations (10-20ug/ml) of PSP promoted the proliferation of T and pre-T cells of mouse thymus, increased the thymus weight, provided more number of lymphocytes, prevented the involuation of thymus in tumor bearing mice and antagonized the anti-tumor action of PSP combined with antilymphocyte serum. […]

Differential anti-tumor activity of coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract through p53- and/or Bcl-2-dependent apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells.

Coriolus versicolor (CV), also called Yunzhi, has been demonstrated to exert anti-tumor effects on various types of cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anti-tumor activity of a standardized aqueous ethanol extract prepared from CV on four breast cancer cell lines using MTT assay, and test whether the mechanism involves apoptosis induction and modulation of p53 and Bcl-2 protein expressions using cell death detection ELISA, p53 and Bcl-2 ELISAs respectively. Our results demonstrated that the CV extract dose-dependently suppressed the proliferation of three breast tumor cell lines, with ascending order of IC50 values: T-47D, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, while BT-20 cells were not significantly affected. Tumoricidal activity of the CV extract was found to be comparable to a chemotherapeutic anti-cancer drug, mitomycin C. Nucleosome productions in apoptotic MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and T-47D cells were significantly augmented in a time-dependent manner and paralleled the anti-proliferative activity of CV extract. Expression of p53 protein was significantly upregulated only in T-47D cells treated with the CV extract in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, but not in MCF-7 (except at 400 mug/ml after 16 h) and MDA-MB-231 cells. The CV extract significantly induced a dose-dependent downregulation of Bcl-2 protein expression in MCF-7 and T-47D cells, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. These results suggested that apoptosis induction, differentially dependent of p53 and Bcl-2 expressions, might be the possible mechanism of CV extract-mediated cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells in vitro.[…]

Antimetastatic effect of PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide, against the B16-BL6 mouse melanoma.

We examined the effect of PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide, upon in vivo metastasis and in vitro invasion of the B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells. (1) PSK suppressed in vivo artificial and spontaneous lung metastases of B16-BL6 in C57BL/6 mice. (2) PSK in a dose-dependent fashion suppressed in vitro invasion and chemotaxis of the tumor cells using filters coated with a reconstituted basement membrane. (3) PSK had little effect on DNA synthesis in tumor cells in vitro, but suppressed tumor cell adhesion to […]

Anticancerous Effect of PSP Purified Products and KS-2 on Human Tumor Cell Lines in Vitro

The anticancer effects of PSP purified products, PSP-A, PSP-B, PSP-C and crude product PSP-Cr and KS-2 were compared on four human tumor cell lines in vitro. It was found that the inhibition rate of cell proliferation of PSP-A was higher than that of PSP-Cr, PSP-B and PSP-C (P<0.05). On SPC cells, the inhibition rate of PSP-A at a dosage of 1000ug/ml was 62.7%, being the highest as compared with those on the other three cell lines […]

Molecular characterization of Coriolus versicolor PSP-induced apoptosis in human promyelotic leukemic HL-60 cells using cDNA microarray.

Proteins and peptide bound polysaccharides (PSP) extracted from Basidiomycetous fungi are widely used in cancer immunotherapy and recently demonstrated to induce apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro. In order to provide the molecular pharmacological mechanisms of PSP on human cancer cells, we investigated the gene expression profiles of PSP-treated apoptotic human promyelotic leukemic HL-60 cells using ResGen 40k IMAGE printed cDNA microarray. In total 378 and 111 transcripts were identified as differentially expressed in the apoptotic cells by at least a factor of 2 or 3, respectively. Our data show that PSP-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells might be mediated by up-regulation of early transcription factors such as AP-1, EGR1, IER2 and IER5, and down-regulation of NF-kappaB transcription pathways. Other gene expression changes, including the increase of several apoptotic or anti-proliferation genes, such as GADD45A/B and TUSC2, and the decrease of a batch of phosphatase and kinase genes, may also provide further evidences in supporting the process of PSP induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Some of the well-characterized carcinogenesis-related gene transcripts such as SAT, DCT, Melan-A, uPA and cyclin E1 were also alternated by PSP in the HL-60 cells. These transcripts can be employed as markers for quality control of PSP products on functional levels. The present study provides new insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in PSP-induced apoptosis in leukemic HL-60 cells analyzed by cDNA microarray.[…]

Immunomodulatory activities of Yunzhi and Danshen in post-treatment breast cancer patients.

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Discomfort and fatigue are usually arisen from anticancer therapy such as surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or combination therapy, because of the suppressed immunological functions. Yunzhi (Coriolus versicolor) can modulate various immunological functions in vitro, in vivo, and in human clinical trials. Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) has been shown to benefit the circulatory system by its vasodilating and anti-dementia activity. The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of Yunzhi-Danshen capsules in post-treatment breast cancer patients. Eighty-two patients with breast cancer were recruited to take Yunzhi [50 mg/kg body weight, 100% polysaccharopeptide (PSP)] and Danshen (20 mg/kg body weight) capsules every day for a total of 6 months. EDTA blood samples were collected every 2 months for the investigation of immunological functions. Flow cytometry was used to assess the percentages and absolute counts of human lymphocyte subsets in whole blood. Plasma level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that the absolute counts of T-helper lymphocytes (CD4+), the ratio of T-helper (CD4+)/T suppressor and cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD8+), and the percentage and the absolute counts of B-lymphocytes were significantly elevated in patients with breast cancer after taking Yunzhi-Danshen capsules, while plasma slL-2R concentration was significantly decreased (all p < 0.05). Therefore, the regular oral consumption of Yunzhi-Danshen capsules could be beneficial for promoting immunological function in post-treatment of breast cancer patients.[…]

Polysaccharide peptides from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation in the rat in vitro and in vivo.

Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy in China. In this study, the effects of whole PSP extract and water extract of PSP on 4-hydroxylation of tolbutamide were investigated in rat liver microsomes in vitro and in vivo in the rat. Both the whole PSP extract and the water soluble fraction (0.5-20 microM) decreased the metabolism of tolbutamide to 4-hydroxytolbutamide in vitro. Enzyme kinetics studies showed that PSP inhibited tolbutamide 4-hydroxylase activity in a competitive, concentration-dependent manner. The whole PSP extract had a Ki value of 12.6 microM and IC50 at 18.4 microM, while the water extract had a Ki value of 6.9 microM and IC50 at 9.8 microM. Sulphaphenazole, a specific human CYP2C9 inhibitor, showed a Ki value of 30.8 microM and IC50 at 44.0 microM in the test system. In the pharmacokinetic studies in vivo, acute PSP (4 micromol/kg, i.p.) treatment did not produce significant changes in tolbutamide clearance, but produced a decrease in the Cinitial (7.4%) and an increase in the Vd (7.4%). Sub-chronic pre-treatment of PSP (1-2 micromol/kg/day, i.p.) for three days did not affect the clearance and AUC of tolbutamide, but the Cinitial was decreased, together with increases in the T1/2, and Vd. The formation of 4-hydroxytolbutamide in vivo was decreased in both acute and sub-chronic studies. Taken together, this study demonstrated the PSP can inhibit tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation both in vitro and in vivo. Despite the fact that CYP isoforms that metabolise tolbutamide are different between rat and human liver due to different catalytic characteristics, and rat studies may not be directly extrapolatable to man, the concomitant use of PSP with other CYP2C substrates should be carefully monitored.[…]

Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators.

The in vitro and in vivo research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical medicines modulate the secretion of multiple cytokines. The reported therapeutic success of these plants by traditional cultures and modern clinicians may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Phytotherapy offers a potential therapeutic modality for the treatment of many differing conditions involving cytokines. Given the activity demonstrated by many of the reviewed herbal medicines and the increasing awareness of the broad-spectrum effects of cytokines on autoimmune conditions and chronic degenerative processes, further study of phytotherapy for cytokine-related diseases and syndromes is warranted.[…]