Category Archives: in vitro

Immunomodulating Actions of PSP

PsP, the protein-bound polysaccharide, extracted from a strain of Coriolus versicolor (Cov-1) by Professor Qing-yao Yang, has been proved to be effective against tumor both in animal experiments and in clinical patients. Previous results suggested that the antitumor effects of PsP were related to the potentiation of immunological responses, especially T-cell mediated immune responses of tumorbearing hosts. Since T-lymphocytes play an important role in immune response and T-cell deficiency existed in many diseases, the most noticeable one at present time is the acquired immune deficient syndrome (AIDS) which leads to the failure of T-cell functions and death. Until now there is no any
effective drug in curing this disease. It is of great interest to investigate if PsP can potentiate T-cell functions and restore the immune deficient conditions in tumor, AIDS and other viral infections. In this paper both in vivo and in vitro experiments were used to study PsP on: 1) immune organ weights, 2) antibody informations, 3) serum complement contents, 4) T lymphocyte proliferations, 5) interleukin-2 production, 6) delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, 7) phagocytic ability of reticulo-endothelial system and 8) protection of liver injuries from CCl4 intoxication.

<Click Here for Detail>

 

Coriolus versicolor Detailed Scientific Review

Mushrooms have been used for at least 5000 years for nutritional and medicinal purposes1,2. Anti-viral and anti-cancer effects have been demonstrated in more than 50 species through animal and in vitro studies. Six components of these mushrooms have been investigated for their activity in human cancers: the lentinan component of shiitake, schizophyllan, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), maitake D-fraction and two components of Coriolus versicolor. According to the review by Kidd, lentinan and schizophyllan have limited oral bioavailability, and the AHCC and maitake D-fractions are still in the early stages of investigation, but the two Coriolus versicolor components have been extensively investigated and show promise2.

<Click Here for Detail>

Yun Zhi Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) and the general aspects of its research

Yun Zhi Polysaccharides (PSP) is a new type of BRM (Biological Response Modifier) extracted from the deep layer cultivated mycelia of Cov-1 strain of Yun Zhi (Coriolus versicolor). Its active ingredient is a protein bound polysaccharides used in the BRM therapy of tumors. Its characteristics and the general aspects of its research are briefly introduced in this paper

<Click Here for Detail>

Polysaccharopeptide from Coriolus versicolor has potential for use against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) isolated from the edible mushroom Coriolus versicolor was tested for its potential as an anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) compound in a series of in vitro assays. It demonstrated inhibition of the interaction between HIV-1 gp 120 and immobilized CD4 receptor (IC50=150 microgram/ml), potent inhibition of recombinant HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (IC50=6.25 microgram/ml), and inhibited a glycohydrolase enzyme associated with viral glycosylation. These properties, coupled with its high solubility in water, heat-stability and low cytotoxicity, make it a useful compound for further studies on its possible use as an anti-viral agent in vivo.

(Click Here for Detail)

Clinical trial China phase 2

Polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) is a protein bound polysaccharide isolated from the COV-1 strain of Yunzhi (Coriolous versicolor mushroom) and made from modern alcohol extraction techniques. Each capsule contains 0.34 grams of PSP. Experimental in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown PSP inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells including P338 leukemia cells, S 180 cells, Ehrlich ascites, and stomach and lung cancer cells. It also inhibits the growth of some tumors such as the lymphatic tumor of human skin tissue cells. In addition, PSP affects the immune system of mice by stimulating the production of ?\interferons, increasing the phagocytic index and metabolic rate of the reticuloendothilial system and by raising the HC 50 (median hemolytic dose), IgG and PFC (plaque forming cell) values. Human in-vivo experiments have also shown PSP can modulate the immune system by helping to prevent and partly eliminate the side effects of radiation and chemotherapeutic agents used by cancer patients.

(Click Here for Detail)

Basty University herbal monographs

PSK fights cancers and tumors by inhibiting the growth of cancer cells and by “stimulating a host mediated response.” Natural Killer cells are also promoted to enhance the immune system. It is often used in conjunction with chemotherapy to increase cancer survival rates.  PSP is being proposed as an inhibitor of HIV replication based on an in vitro study

(Click Here for Detail)

The immunomodulator PSK induces in vitro cytotoxic activity in tumor cell lines via arrest of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis

Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) is derived from the CM-101 strain of the fungus Coriolus versicolor and has shown anticancer activity in vitro and in in vivo experimental models and human cancers. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that PSK has great potential in adjuvant cancer therapy, with positive results in the adjuvant treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as an immunomodulator of biological responses. The precise molecular mechanisms responsible for its biological activity have yet to be fully elucidated.

(Click Here for Detail)

Study on Anti-tumor Action of PSP

R.T. Chen, A.M. Zhou, B. Xu Department of Pharmacology I Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Academia Sinica

Abstract

It has been reported that some polysaccharides possess antitumor action. PSP is a glycopeptide isolated from Coriolus versicolor by Yang et al. Its physiological properties have been investigated. In the present work we studied the antitumor action of PSP in vitro experiments.

Summary

PSP at the doses of 500 or 1000ug/ml produced inhibitory effect on P388 luekemia cells by 79-96%. At the dose of 1000 or 2000ug/ml PSP caused the inhibition of [3H]UR or [3H]TdR incorporation into RNA and DNA in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells was found to be the inhibition rate 50-80% or 27-47% respectively.

(Click Here for Detail)

Suppression of cancer cell growth in vitro by the protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) with SOD mimicking activity.

Display Settings: Abstract

Cancer Biother. 1994 Spring;9(1):63-9.

Kobayashi Y, Kariya K, Saigenji K, Nakamura K.

Molecular Biology Laboratory, Kotasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.

Abstract

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) expresses the mimicking activity of superoxide

dismutase (SOD). Examination was made of the suppressive effects of PS-K on cancer cell lines cultured in vitro. The

SOD activity of LLC-WRC-256 (Walker 256 fibrosarcoma) cell lines was less than that of NRK-49F (rat normal kidney

fibroblast), H4-II-E (rat hepatoma) and H4-II-E-C3 (rat hepatoma) cell lines. This activity in Walker 256 fibrosarcoma cells

increased by 3.6 times and H2O2 concentration, by 2.56 times by PS-K 500 micrograms/ml. Cell proliferation was

consequently suppressed and living cells decreased to less than 50% of the cells cultured without PS-K. Catalase and

glutathione peroxidase activity changed little by PS-K. The sensitivity of cancer cells to PS-K can be predetermined based

on SOD activity in tumor tissue.

PMID: 7812358 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

PubMed

U.S. National Library of Medicine

National Institutes of Health

MeSH Terms, Substances

LinkOut – more resources

(Click Here for Detail)

PSP and PSK

Informatioin Office of the Research Institute of Fungi Shanghai Teachers University

PSP and PSK are the 2 products of Yun Zhi ratified by Chinese Ministry of Public Health and Japanese Ministry of Public Health respectively.

PSK was first manufactured by Kureha Chemical Industry Co. Ltd. The PS in PSK represents polysaccharide and K represents the first alphabet of the name of this Company. It was originally written as PS-K and was later changed to PSK. o; The commercial name of the product is Krestin.

PSP was prepared by Professor Qing-yao Yang. It is like PSK and is also a kind of compound polysaccharide. On the molecules of the polysaccharide, the small molecular protein (polypeptide) is connected. So it is called Yun Zhi Duo Tang Tai or Yun Zhi Tang Tai. The Tang Tai English names were originally glycopeptide, proteoglucan, glycosaminoglucan, etc. But the polysaccharide is all composed of N-acetyl-amino-hexose. But the polysaccharides of PSP and PSK are not composed of N-acetylamino-hexose. So it is not suitable to use the name. So the word “polysaccharopeptide” or “polysaccharide-peptide” is used and is abbreviated as PSP or Ps-p.

According to the different degrees of extraction, there are a series of PSP products. PSP directly extracted from the mycelia of Yun Zhi is called Yun Zhi Polysaccharide-peptide (Trade mark Qing Kang) and PSP polysacchardie-peptide (Landford). The former is sold on the market of Mainland China and the latter is according to the export specifications and is sold overseas. These 2 products are mainly used for tumorous patients.

The essence of the product is obtained by further isolation of the crude product. It is called Essence of Mushroom (Yun Zhi) (The sole distributor is Winsor Health Products Ltd., Hong Kong) used for healthy purposes.

Japan is quite specialized in the research of Yun Zhi. Besides PSK, Hirose, S. et al, (1970), Naruse S. and Takeda S. (in 1970) and Sugiura M. (in 1980) isolated two anticancerous components of the mycelia of Yun Zhi respectively. The former is called

ASTO and latter D–II. In addition, Ito H. et al (in 1974) extracted from the fermented mash of Yun Zhi an anti-tumor component which does not contain protein and it is called Coriolan. Its chemical components are glucans (by Hayashida S. et al, in 1992). But the above-mentioned three components still remain in the process of pharmacological research and was not used in clinical application.

Though PSP and PSK are all a kind of protein bound polysaccharide and are all extracted from the deep layer cultivated mycelia, yet they use the different strains, fermented medium and different extracted methods. Thus there is a certain difference between PSP and PSK. It is known that in the polysaccharide of PSP there is fucose, while there is no fucose in PSP, which contains arabinose and rhamnose; while there are no such ingredients in PSK. On the other hand, according to the pharmacological and clinical research, PSP has the definite effect of alleviating pain and increasing appetite, while there is no such report on PSK. Comparison of Two Characterisitics of PSP and PSK

Items compared

Similarities

Dissimilarities

Fungi

Yun Zhi Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Quel

PSP: Cov-1 strain PSK: CM-101 strain

Drug produced

PSP: capsule PSK: loose package

Powder color

brown

PSP: brown PSK: dark brown

Raw materials

deep-layer cultivated mycelia (2N)

Fermentation technology

with glucose as the main carbon source (25oC, 3 days)

PSP: nitrogenous source: soya beancake powder PSK: nitrogenous source: peptone and yeast cake

Extract and isolate

obtained by immersion in hot water

PSP: isolate by alcoholic precipitation PSK: isolate by salting out with (NH4)2SO4

Medicinal ingredients

protein bound polysaccharide; average molecular wt. 1 x 105 Da the polysaccharide is formed from many monosaccahrides containing

PSP: polysaccharides contain arabinose and rhmanose, but no fucose PSK: polysaccharides do not

(Click here for detail)