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Effect of polysaccharide peptide (PSP) on in vivo sulphation and glucuronidation of paracetamol in the rat.

The effect of polysaccharide peptide (PSP), an immunomodulator isolated from Coriolus versicolor COV-1, on the disposition of paracetamol was investigated in the rat. PSP (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered 30 min before a moderate dose (100 mg/kg, i.v.) of paracetamol was given. Plasma and bile concentrations of paracetamol, paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetics of paracetamol (100 mg/kg) alone was consistent with those reported previously, using a one-compartment model. PSP (200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) increased the clearance (controls, 19.06 +/- 2.74 ml/min/kg: PSP treated, 26.22 +/- 0.84 ml/min/kg) and volume of distribution (controls, 1.35 +/- 0.11 l/kg: PSP treated, 1.61 +/- 0.04 l/kg) of paracetamol by 37% and 21%, respectively. These changes were associated with concomitant increases in the glucuronide and sulphate metabolites in plasma, with significant increases in the Cmax and Tmax for both metabolites. The biliary excretion rate of paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate were also measured. The Cmax values of paracetamol sulphate were significantly (P < 0.01) increased by 2.4-fold from 907.8 +/- 157.7 micrograms/ml (controls) to 3061 +/- 331 micrograms/ml after PSP treatment. The lower dose of PSP (100 mg/kg) had no significant effect on the disposition of paracetamol in this study, which agreed with previous reports that a low dose of PSP (100-200 mg/kg, i.p.) was less effective in the protection against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. The time course of the increase in paracetamol sulphate in plasma and bile in this study coincided with the transient perturbation of glutathione (GSH) turnover by a similar dose range of PSP previously described, such that more cysteine was available for oxidation to inorganic sulphate. This increase in sulphate conjugation by PSP would, in part, contribute to the increase in disposition of paracetamol and may be related to the ability of PSP to decrease the covalent binding of paracetamol to microsomal proteins previously reported. Further studies are necessary to understand the mechanism(s) involved in the PSP-induced increases in paracetamol glucuronide and paracetamol sulphate formation and biliary excretion.[…]

Effect of polysaccharide-peptide (PSP), an extract from yun-zhi, on chemotherapy-induced cytopenias.

Polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) is a protein-bound complex carbohydrate derived from mycelia extract of Chinese fungus coriolus versicolor, or better known as Yun-Zhi. It has been shown to inhibit growth of cultured tumour cells, and it prevents cytotoxic-induced bone marrow suppression. An animal study was conducted with 24 Wistar rats to verify the myeloprotective effect of PSP. The rats were divided into two equal groups: group A (given cyclophosphamide [CTX]) and group B (given PSP and CTX). The body weights were similar in both groups of rats. In phase 1, all rats were given intravenous CTX 75 mg/kg. In addition, B rats received PSP 20 mg/day orally from 7 days before CTX to 14 days after CTX. Phase 2 was carried out two weeks after full recovery from CTX-induced cytopenia. The CTX was decreased to 60 mg/kg, and the group B rats received an increased dose of PSP 1.2 g/day for the same 21 days. In both phases, the CTX was well tolerated. Nadir white blood cell count was reached on day 4 and all counts recovered by day 10. There was no difference in absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts between groups A and B. We concluded that oral PSP did not prevent CTX-induced cytopenia in rats.[…]

Effects of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides peptides on electric activity of mediobasal hypothalamus and on immune function in rats.

MBH is involved in the immune-potentiating effect of PSP.[…]

Immunotherapy with low-dose interleukin-2 and a polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor.

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of locally administered low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a polysaccharopeptide (PSP) derived from Cariolous versicolor in a herpes virus Type 2-transformed murine tumor (H238) model and to determine possible mechanisms of action. BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) with H238 tumor cells and randomized into groups: a) no tumor and no treatment control, b) tumor and no treatment control, c) tumor + IL-2 at 0 to 4 days, d) tumor + PSP at 0 to 10 days, e) tumor + IL-2 at 0 to 4 days + PSP at 0 to 10 days, and f) tumor + IL-2 at 15 to 19 days + PSP at 15 to 25 days. The IL-2 was administered s.c. at 2 x 10(4) i.u./mouse/injection; PSP was given s.c. at 2 mg/mouse/injection. No obvious toxicity was noted during the treatments. IL-2 and, to a lesser extent, PSP significantly slowed (p < 0.05) tumor progression when given alone immediately after tumor cell injection. The combination of the two modalities did not significantly enhance the antitumor effect of IL-2 alone. However, mice receiving both agents had IL-2 in the plasma, their tumors expressed low levels of transforming growth factor-beta, and their splenocyte response to mitogenic stimulation was significantly higher than in untreated controls. Changes in blood leukocyte populations and splenic oxidative burst capacity were associated with tumor presence, but not with the type of treatment. In vitro assays showed that both IL-2 and PSP can suppress the uptake of 3H-thymidine by tumor cells and that the effect is more pronounced whent the agents are used in combination. These results indicate that IL-2 and PSP can slow progression of H238 tumors and that the mechanisms of action may be related to their direct cytotoxic effects, as well to their immunomodulatory properties.[…]

A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae).

1. Protein-bound polysaccharides, designated as PSK and PSP, have been isolated from the CM-101 strain and the COV-1 strain, respectively, of the mushroom Coriolus versicolor. This article aims at summarizing existing research findings about PSP since information on PSK is well documented. 2. PSP possesses a molecular weight of approximately 100 kDa. Glutamic and aspartic acids are abundant in its polypeptide component, whereas its polysaccharide component is made up of monosaccharides with alpha-1,4 and beta-1,3 glucosidic linkages. The presence of fucose in PSK and rhamnose and arabinose in PSP distinguishes the two protein-bound polysaccharides, which are otherwise chemically similar. 3. PSP is classified as a biological response modifier. It induces, in experimental animals, increased gamma-interferon production, interleukin-2 production, and T-cell proliferation. It also counteracts the depressive effect of cyclophosphamide on white blood cell count, interleukin-2 production and delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Its antiproliferative activity against tumor cell lines and in vivo antitumor activity have been demonstrated. A small peptide with a molecular weight of 16-18 kDa originating from PSP has been produced with antiproliferative and antitumor activities. 4. PSP administered to patients with esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and lung cancer, and who are undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy, helps alleviate symptoms and prevents the decline in immune status.[…]

Dietary supplementation with mushroom-derived protein-bound glucan does not enhance immune function in young and old mice.

Decline in immune response is a well-documented age-associated biological change. Protein-bound polysaccharides (PSP) are biological response modifiers and have been shown to have immunoenhancing and antitumor effects. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary supplementation with PSP-containing extract derived from mycelia of Coriolus versicolor on in vitro and in vivo indices of immune function of young and old mice. Young (5 mo) and old (23 mo) C57BL/6NIA mice were fed purified diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0% PSP for 1 mo at which time indices of immune function were measured. PSP supplementation had no significant effect on mitogenic response to concanavalin A (Con A), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or on production of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL- 4 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Of the in vivo indices of immune function tested, old mice fed 1.0% PSP had significantly higher delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response than those fed 0% PSP. No significant effect of PSP was observed on the DTH response of young mice. The antibody response to sheep red blood cells was not significantly influenced by PSP in young or old mice. These results suggest that PSP-containing extract from mycelia of Coriolus versicolor might have a modest immunoenhancing effect in aged mice, but not in young mice.[…]

Involvement of interleukin-2 in analgesia produced by Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide peptides.

The analgesia produced by PSP is mediated by IL-2 which is activated by PSP and interacts with IL-2 receptors in the MBH.[…]

The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment.

Immunoceuticals can be considered as substances having immunotherapeutic efficacy when taken orally. More than 50 mushroom species have yielded potential immunoceuticals that exhibit anticancer activity in vitro or in animal models and of these, six have been investigated in human cancers. All are non-toxic and very well tolerated. Lentinan and schizophyllan have little oral activity. Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is poorly defined but has shown early clinical promise. Maitake D-Fraction has limited proof of clinical efficacy to date, but controlled research is underway. Two proteoglycans from Coriolus versicolor – PSK (Polysaccharide-K) and PSP (Polysaccharide-Peptide – have demonstrated the most promise. In Japanese trials since 1970, PSK significantly extended survival at five years or beyond in cancers of the stomach, colon-rectum, esophagus, nasopharynx, and lung (non-small cell types), and in a HLA B40-positive breast cancer subset. PSP was subjected to Phase II and Phase III trials in China. In double-blind trials, PSP significantly extended five-year survival in esophageal cancer. PSP significantly improved quality of life, provided substantial pain relief, and enhanced immune status in 70-97 percent of patients with cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, ovary, and cervix. PSK and PSP boosted immune cell production, ameliorated chemotherapy symptoms, and enhanced tumor infiltration by dendritic and cytotoxic T-cells. Their extremely high tolerability, proven benefits to survival and quality of life, and compatibility with chemotherapy and radiation therapy makes them well suited for cancer management regimens.[…]

Immunomodulation and anti-cancer activity of polysaccharide-protein complexes.

In the last three decades, numerous polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes have been isolated from mushrooms and used as a source of therapeutic agents. The most promising biopharmacological activities of these biopolymers are their immunomodulation and anti-cancer effects. They are mainly present as glucans with different types of glycosidic linkages such as (1–>3), (1–>6)-beta-glucans and (1–>3)-alpha-glucans, and as true herteroglycans, while others mostly bind to protein residues as polysaccharide-protein complexes. Three antitumor mushroom polysaccharides, i.e. lentinan, schizophyllan and protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK, Krestin), isolated respectively, from Lentinus edodes, Schizophyllum commune and Coriolus versicolor, have become large market items in Japan. Lentinan and schizophyllan are pure beta-glucans, whereas PSK is a protein-bound beta-glucan. A polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from a strain of Coriolus versicolor in China, has also been widely used as an anti-cancer and immunomodulatory agent. Although the mechansim of their antitumor action is still not completely clear, these polysaccharides and polysaccharide-protein complexes are suggested to enhance cell-mediated immune responses in vivo and in vitro and act as biological response modifiers. Potentiation of the host defense system may result in the activation of many kinds of immune cells that are vitally important for the maintenance of homeostasis. Polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes are considered as multi-cytokine inducers that are able to induce gene expression of vaious immunomodulatory cytokines and cytokine receptors. Some interesting studies focus on investigation of the relationship between their structure and antitumor activity, elucidation of their antitumor mechanism at the molecular level, and improvement of their various biological activities by chemical modifications.[…]

Evaluation of polysaccharopeptide effects against C6 glioma in combination with radiation.

Long-term control of high-grade brain tumors is rarely achieved with current therapeutic regimens. The major goal of this study was to determine whether polysaccharopeptide (PSP), a crude polysaccharide peptide extract derived from Coriolus versicolor, a fungus, could enhance the effects of radiation against glioma cells in culture and in xenografted tumors in vivo. PSP significantly augmented radiation-induced damage to C6 rat glioma cells in vitro. Nude mice injected subcutaneously with the C6 cells were treated with PSP (injected intraperitoneally at 2 mg/injection) and radiation (2 Gy/fraction, 8 Gy in total) using three different time-dose protocols. Tumor volumes were consistently smaller in all treated groups compared to the non-treated tumor-bearing controls except in one group which received PSP prior to tumor implantation. The administration of radiation alone resulted in the slowest tumor progression, whereas PSP alone had no effect. Furthermore, PSP in combination with radiation treatment did not increase radiation efficacy. Natural killer cell, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts in blood and spleen were significantly higher in PSP-treated animals, demonstrating that PSP has protective effects on immunological function. Collectively, these results warrant further investigation to determine if PSP can be effectively utilized to upregulate immune responsiveness in case of neoplasia and other diseases in which immunosuppression is a prominent feature.[…]