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PSK

Enhancement of anti-cancer activity of cisdiaminedichloroplatinum by the protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) in vitro.

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS_K) expresses superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimicking activity. Examination was made of the effects of PS-K on cancer cell lines following administration of the anti-cancer drug cisdiaminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin). Cell proliferation of each cell line was inhibited markedly by cisplatin from 0.5 to 5 micrograms/0.5 ml per well. Fifty percent of the inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 0.33 micrograms/0.5 ml per well in NRK-49F and human ovarian cancer cells, and 1.5 micrograms/0.5 ml per well in H4-II-E. PS-K 50 micrograms/0.5 ml per well prevented cytotoxicity due to cisplatin toward NRK-49F, but enhanced the cytotoxicity on H4-II-E and human ovarian cancer cells. Increase in lipid peroxide and decrease in SOD activity were observed following an IC50 dose of cisplatin. With PS-K 50 micrograms/0.5 ml per well, all the above were augmented in H4-II-E and ovarian cancer cells, but diminished in NRK-49F cell line. PS-K may have effect on cancer patients through its combining with cisplatin.[…]

Oxidative stress relief for cancer-bearing hosts by the protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL with SOD mimicking activity.

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) expresses the mimetic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Human cancer patients usually suffer from oxidative stress (OS). Examination was made to determine the capacity of this drug with SOD mimetic activity for relieving OS. Rats transplanted with Walker 256 fibrosarcoma showed OS on day 12. After confirming high levels of OS on day 13, PS-K50 mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered, and prompt decrease in O2-release from RBC was noted. The drug ceased to have any effect 24 hours following the first inoculation. Average OS in human cancer patients was found twice that in healthy persons. In human cancer patients perorally administered PS-K3.0 g/day, OS decreased to the normal level one day after the initial administration. Plasma lipid peroxide (LPO) in cancer patients treated with PS-K for 28 days increased and withdrawal of the drug led to decreased LPO.[…]

Suppression of cancer cell growth in vitro by the protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) with SOD mimicking activity.

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) expresses the mimicking activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). Examination was made of the suppressive effects of PS-K on cancer cell lines cultured in vitro. The SOD activity of LLC-WRC-256 (Walker 256 fibrosarcoma) cell lines was less than that of NRK-49F (rat normal kidney fibroblast), H4-II-E (rat hepatoma) and H4-II-E-C3 (rat hepatoma) cell lines. This activity in Walker 256 fibrosarcoma cells increased by 3.6 times and H2O2 concentration, by 2.56 times by PS-K 500 micrograms/ml. Cell proliferation was consequently suppressed and living cells decreased to less than 50% of the cells cultured without PS-K. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity changed little by PS-K. The sensitivity of cancer cells to PS-K can be predetermined based on SOD activity in tumor tissue.[…]

Suppressive effects on cancer cell proliferation of the enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity associated with the protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL.

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) expresses superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimicking activity. Examination was made of the suppressive effects of PS-K on cancer cell lines cultured in vitro. SOD activity of incorporated PS-K was 5.88 u/mg in LLC-WRC-256 (Walker 256 fibrosarcoma) cells and 4.73 u/mg in NRK-49F (rat normal kidney fibroblast) cells. SOD activity in both cell types was enhanced about 7-8 times that of the original PS-K. PS-K was not incorporated into H4-11-E or H4-11-E-C3 (rat hepatoma) cells. SOD activity of 1 mg/ml PS-K incubated with cell homogenates of LLC-WRC-256 cells for 6 hours increased from 0.68 u/mg to 1.35 u/mg. SOD activity of PS-K 1 mg/ml in 0.05 M phosphate buffer incubated with 50 microM NADPH increased from 0.68 u/mg. The consumption of NADPH at the same concentration was confirmed spectrophotometically by incubation with PS-K. The mechanism for the enhancement of SOD activity associated with PS-K is considered to be collaboration with NADPH as an electron donor in the cytoplasm of cancer cells whose SOD and coupling enzyme activities are significantly lower than in normal cells.[…]

Suppression of in vivo tumor-induced angiogenesis by the protein-bound polysaccharide PSK.

The anti-angiogenic effects of an antitumor protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes were examined by the mouse dorsal air sac assay. PSK suppressed the mouse hepatoma MH134-induced angiogenesis when assessed by morphological and biochemical examinations. This finding suggested that the anti-metastatic effect of PSK is attributed to the suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis.[…]

Enhancement of the antitumor effect by the concurrent use of a monoclonal antibody and the protein-bound polysaccharide PSK in mice bearing a human cancer cell line.

The antitumor effects of a monoclonal antibody against a human cancer cell line and a protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes were examined. The IgG2a monoclonal antibody against the human colon cancer cell line colo 205 induced in vitro antibody-dependent macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity against the cancer cells, but only slightly suppressed the in vivo growth of the cancer cells. Concurrent use of PSK with the antibody enhanced the in vitro antibody-dependent macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity as well as the in vivo antitumor activity. These findings suggest that the combined use of a monoclonal antibody and PSK, which have different modes of action, may be useful in the treatment of cancer.[…]

Prolongation of the survival period with the biological response modifier PSK in rats bearing N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mammary gland tumors.

The antitumor effects of a protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes on mammary gland tumors produced in Sprague-Dawley rats by the intravenous injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea were investigated. PSK prolonged the survival period of tumor-bearing rats significantly, when given at the dose of 250 mg/kg twice a week for 3 weeks after the tumor reached 100 mm2 in size (p = 0.011 by log rank test and p = 0.023 by generalized Wilcoxon test). These findings suggest that PSK is effective in the prolongation of the survival period in the rat autochthonous tumor model, acting at the growth stage of the tumor during carcinogenesis.[…]

Antimetastatic effects of PSK (Krestin), a protein-bound polysaccharide obtained from basidiomycetes: an overview.

PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes, is a biological response modifier, diverse operations of which include an antitumor action. We have previously reviewed recent research which had demonstrated that in animals, PSK has a preventive effect on chemical carcinogen-induced, radiation-induced, and spontaneously developed carcinogenesis (Kobayashi et al., Cancer Epidemiol., Biomarkers & Prev., 2: 271-276, 1993). We now focus on the effects of PSK once the progression of carcinogenesis has begun, and review what is now known of the preventive action of PSK on cancer metastasis. Recent research reports that PSK suppresses pulmonary metastasis of methylcholanthrene-induced sarcomas, human prostate cancer DU145M, and lymphatic metastasis of mouse leukemia P388, and that it has prolonged the survival period in spontaneous metastasis models. PSK also suppresses the metastasis of rat hepatoma AH60C, mouse colon cancer colon 26, and mouse leukemia RL male 1 in artificial metastasis models. PSK influences the steps of cancer metastasis in a number of ways: (a) by suppression of intravasation through the inhibition of tumor invasion, adhesion and production of cell matrix-degrading enzymes; (b) by suppression of tumor cell attachment to endothelial cells through the inhibition of tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation; (c) by suppression of tumor cell migration after extravasation through the inhibition of tumor cell motility; and (d) by suppression of tumor growth after extravasation through the inhibition of angiogenesis, the modulation of cytokine production, and the augmentation of effector cell functions. In addition, PSK has suppressed the malignant progression of mouse tumor cells through superoxide trapping.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[…]

PSK protects macrophages from lipoperoxide accumulation and foam cell formation caused by oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein.

In previous works, it has been evidenced that lipoperoxidative injury to macrophages caused by oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (O-LDL) plays an important role in foam cell formation, and that PSK, a protein bound polysaccharide extracted from the class Basidiomycetes Coriolus Versicolor, can protect macrophages from lipoperoxidative injury induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tbOOH). In this paper PSK protection of macrophages from lipoperoxide (LPO) accumulation and foam cell formation caused by O-LDL and its action mechanism were further studied. The LPO accumulation was determined by using ACAS 570. Dynamic assay of the LPO level in eight single cells after adding O-LDL or determination of the average LPO content in a lot of cells incubated in advance with O-LDL for 12 h, both indicated that O-LDL might induce LPO accumulation in macrophages and the effects of O-LDL could be prevented by PSK. O-LDL might cause the changes of morphological structure in macrophages and the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, and the effects could also be prevented by PSK. The determination of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) activities and mRNA contents of macrophages and changes of SeGSHPx activity and mRNA content after incubation with tbOOH showed that PSK might increase the SeGSHPx activity of macrophage and the enhanced SeGSHPx activity may occur at the level of gene transcription.[…]

Effects of OK-432 (picibanil) on the estrogen receptors of MCF-7 cells and potentiation of antiproliferative effects of tamoxifen in combination with OK-432.

OK-432 (picibanil), a streptococcal preparation, has a strong biological response modifier (BRM) function and is expected to produce clinical improvement and prolongation of survival in treated cancer patients in Japan. We were interested in whether OK-432 augments estrogen receptor (ER) levels in breast cancer. To investigate the effect of the BRMs on cellular growth and the characteristics of ER and progesterone receptors (PgR) in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, we used OK-432, Krestin (PSK), a protein-bound polysaccharide extracted from Coriolus versicolor, and lentinan, a fungal branched (1…3)-beta-D-glycan. OK432 and PSK dose dependently inhibited DNA synthesis of MCF-7 cells, and the 50% inhibitory concentrations of OK-432 and PSK were 1.2 KE (klinische Einheit, clinical unit)/ml and 200 micrograms/ml, respectively. Lentinan showed no direct anticancer effect in vitro. We found that OK-432 induced a 2-fold increase in ER levels in MCF-7 cells at 0.005 KE/ml, but not in PgR. Lentinan and low-dose PSK did not change ER or PgR levels, but high-dose PSK decreased ER and PgR. We also studied the combined effect of OK-432 and antiestrogens, tamoxifen (TAM) and DP-TAT-59. The combined treatment with OK-432 and TAM showed an additive inhibitory effect on MCF-7 cells. These results suggest that OK-432 may augment the therapeutic effect of TAM in breast cancer.[…]