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Effect of a protein-bound polysaccharide PS-K on the complement system.

A protein-bound polysaccharide from mycelia of Coriolus versicolor PS-K, clinically used as an immunomodulator, has been shown to restore the decreased cellular immune response and to exhibit host-mediated antitumor activity. In this experiment, PS-K was found to increase serum complement level in guinea pig and in human without malignancy, when hemolytic assay of complement was performed using sensitized sheep erythrocytes for the classical pathway activity and unsensitized rabbit erythrocytes for the alternative pathway activity. Assay of complement components revealed increase in C3 level in guinea pig, but no significant changes in C1q, C4, C3, properdin, C3 activator, and C1-inhibitor in human, while C5 and C9 were depressed. Conversion of beta 1C to beta 1A was observed in the 7th day’s plasma of these patients by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. Biosynthesis of guinea pig C3 was accelerated by administration of PS-K, but that of C4 was not affected. These evidences suggested that PS-K might potentiate immune response of the host by elevating serum complement level, in addition to the activation of the complement system.[…]

Krestin (PSK).

A polysaccharide preparation isolated from Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Quél. of Basidiomycetes (PSK) predominantly consists of glucan and approximately 25% tightly bound protein. PSK was effective against various allogeneic and syngeneic animal tumors and has been given orally to cancer patients. Various suppressed or enhanced immune responses of tumor-bearing animals were restored to normal levels by the administration of PSK in the tumor models tested. The killer T cell activity was augmented in tumor-bearing mice by intraperitoneal or oral administration of PSK, and there was correlation between the PSK associated antitumor effect and the killer T cell activity. It was found that PSK competed with immunosuppressive substances isolated from tumor-bearing mice and that the intestinal immune system appeared to be modulated by oral administration of PSK. After oral administration of 14C- or 35S-labeled PSK to normal rats, it was found that small or large molecular substances appeared in the serum depending on the time elapsed after administration, an indication that large molecular size products were from the digestive tract.[…]

Cloning of sequences induced and suppressed by administration of PSK, antitumor protein-bound polysaccharide.

To elucidate the effects of PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor, on gene expression in tumor cells, we prepared cDNA clone libraries from PSK-treated and untreated cells of a rat ascites hepatoma line, AH66, which was previously shown to be susceptible to the antitumor action of this compound. Two PSK-induced and one suppressed cDNA clones were selected from these libraries by using a differential colony hybridization and RNA blot hybridization. PSK was thus shown to have a direct effect on the transcription and consequently on the translation of tumor cells.[…]

[Restoration of depressed immune responses by PSK in C3H/He mice bearing the syngeneic X5563 tumor]

PSK is a protein-bound polysaccharide prepared from cultured mycelium of Coriolus versicolor. The effects of PSK on immunologic responsiveness were investigated in C3H/He mice bearing syngeneic X5563 tumor. The results were as follows. elayed foot pad reaction and antibody-forming capacity to sheep erythrocytes were depressed in tumor bearing mice, and such depression was prevented by oral or intraperitoneal administration of PSK. In vitro cytotoxic activity of splenic lymphocytes against the tumor was augmented by PSK administration. Antitumor effect was augmented by combination of PSK and X-irradiation. Delayed foot pad reaction to sheep erythrocytes was suppressed in normal C3H/He mice given immunosuppressive substance obtained from tumor-bearing mice, and the depressed reaction recovered to the normal level following PSK administration. These results show that PSK is effective in the syngeneic murine tumor system.[…]

[Competitive effect of PSK against the immunosuppressive effect induced in the sera of mice bearing syngeneic tumors]

PSK is a protein-bound polysaccharide prepared from cultured mycelium of Coriolus versicolor. The appearance of an immunosuppressive effect in sera of tumor-bearing mice and its elimination by oral administration of PSK were investigated using an in vitro assay of blastoid transformation of normal spleen cells in response to PHA. (1) An inhibitory effect appeared in sera of X5563 plasmacytoma-bearing mice, while a facilitating effect was noted in sera of MH134 hepatoma- and MM 102 mammary tumor-bearing mice. (2) The presence of both an inhibitory and a facilitating factor was shown by Sephacryl gel fractionation. (3) Oral administration of PSK resulted in the elimination of the inhibitory effect from sera of X5563-bearing mice. The facilitating effect of sera from MH134-bearing mice was augmented by PSK administration, but that in sera from MM102-bearing mice was not influenced by such treatment. The summarized effects of these factors may be expressed as various types of effects in serum and PSK may be effective in the elimination of a suppressive factor from such sera.[…]

[Restoration of immunologic responsiveness by PSK in tumor-bearing animals]

PSK is a protein-bound polysaccharide prepared from cultured mycelium of the Basidiomycete Coriolus versicolor. Effects of PSK on the immunologic responsiveness in tumor-bearing animals were investigated using syngeneic or allogeneic tumors in mice (Lewis lung carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Meth A fibrosarcoma, adenocarcinoma 755, X5563 plasmacytoma, colon 26, MOPC 31C myeloma, sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich carcinoma), rats (BC47 bladder carcinoma, Walker 256 sarcoma and AH7974 hepatoma), hamsters (HA-1T tumor and RPMI 1846 melanoma), guinea pigs (line-10 hepatoma) and rabbit (VX2 and VX7 tumor). Oral or intraperitoneal administration of PSK restored the depressed delayed hypersensitivity against sheep erythrocytes to a normal level in these tumor-host systems. Also, oral administration of PSK lowered the activity of immunosuppressive substances in the serum of tumor-bearing animals. These results suggest that PSK exhibits antitumor effects by restoring the depressed immunologic responsiveness in tumor-bearing animals.[…]

Effect of immunostimulants and antitumor agents on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production.

OK-432, a lyophilized preparation of Streptococcus pyogenes, showed a priming activity for TNF production in mice, associated with an increase of spleen weight. PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide preparation from Coriolus versicolor, did not show such activity. Both OK-432 and PSK potentiated the TNF production in mice primed with Corynebacterium parvum (CP) and challenged with Escherichia coli endotoxin (LPS). Cytotoxic antitumor agents of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), cyclophosphamide (CY) and bleomycin (BLM) suppressed TNF production in mice primed with CP and challenged with LPS. TNF production suppressed by 5-FU, CY and BLM was partially restored by the combined treatment with OK-432 or PSK. These results suggest that the administration of cytotoxic antitumor agents suppresses the intrinsic TNF production in cancer patients, and the combined use of immunostimulants such as OK-432 and PSK is advantageous in restoring TNF production suppressed by cytotoxic antitumor agents.[…]

Effect of PSK on prohibited immunity of splenectomized mice.

The effect of PSK (Krestine, an anti-tumor drug prepared from Coriolus versicolor) on splenectomized experimental animals was investigated. Splenectomy was performed on both a tumor-free control group and a tumor-bearing group. The administration of PSK on the splenectomized control group significantly increased the immune state of the host. In the case of the tumor-bearing group, administration of PSK resulted in restoration of the immune function as observed in the control group. Recovery of the immunological function was accelerated when tumor-bearing animals were splenectomized at the terminal stage. The results suggest that the immunomodulating effects of PSK developed at the time of the splenectomy resulted in anticancer activity.[…]

Restoration of immune responsiveness by a biological response modifier, PSK, in aged mice bearing syngeneic transplantable tumor.

PSK (Krestin) is a protein-bound polysaccharide isolated from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes. PSK is a biological response modifier which possesses unique characteristics. We investigated the effects of PSK on the immune response of aged C57BL/6 mice bearing a syngeneic transplantable tumor adenocarcinoma 755. (a) In C57BL/6 mice, the delayed foot pad reaction against sheep erythrocytes and resistance to syngeneic tumor challenge reached a peak when the mice were at 30 weeks of age, and decreased at 50-60 weeks of age. The serum of normal mice exerts a modifying effect on blastogenesis of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin. The positive effect reached a peak at 30 weeks of age, and thereafter declined with age. (b) When adenocarcinoma 755 was inoculated to C57BL/6 mice at 10-, 30- and 60-weeks of age, immune responses were depressed in 10-week-old and 60-week-old mice. PSK prevented such depression. However, in 30-week-old mice, tumor-induced suppression was slight, and administration of PSK to them increased proportion of mice which did not develop a tumor. (c) In 60-week-old tumor-bearing mice, the antitumor effects was increased with a combination of PSK and adoptive transfer of spleen cells from 10-week-old normal mice. The immune responses of mice, which change with the progress of age, are depressed by tumor burden. The administration of PSK to aged mice is effective to restore immune responses from tumor-induced suppression.[…]

Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of type 1 copper in type 2 depleted fungal laccase A.

The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of type 1 copper(II) in 63Cu-enriched Coriolus versicolor laccase A (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC have been studied. The X-band EPR spectrum in type 2 copper-depleted [63Cu]laccase A exhibited well-resolved ligand superhyperfine structure in the g perpendicular region. This structure was assigned to an interaction with two nitrogens and two protons, an assignment which is consistent with a model in which the two nitrogens belong to two histidine ligands and the two protons are the methylene protons of a coordinating cysteine. It also requires the delocalization of a substantial amount of the type 1 copper(II) unpaired electron density onto the cysteine sulphur.[…]