Coriolus mushroom is a fungus. People have used the fruiting body and other parts as folk medicine for a long time. Recently, researchers have started to isolate and identify substances in coriolus that might act like pharmaceutical drugs. Two of these substances are polysaccharide peptide (PSP) and polysaccharide krestin (PSK). Scientists think these chemicals might be able to fight cancer and boost the immune system. Coriolus mushroom, PSP, and PSK are used for stimulating the immune system; treating herpes, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), hepatitis, and pulmonary disorders; reducing phlegm; improving bodybuilding results; increasing energy; curing ringworm and a skin condition called impetigo; treating upper respiratory, urinary, and digestive tract infections; curing liver disorders including hepatitis; reducing the toxic effects and pain of chemotherapy and radiation therapy; increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapy; prolonging life and raising the quality of life of cancer patients; and increasing appetite.
PSP has been shown to manifest immunomodulatory and anticancer properties in both pre-clinical experiments and clinical trials. It has been
shown to reduce the side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy and has been used as an adjunct medical modality to conventional cancer treatment. Experiments suggest that PSP can boost the immune system and alleviate the symptoms of chemotherapy.
Polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) is a protein bound polysaccharides isolated from the COV-1 strain of Yunzhi (Coriolous versicolor mushroom) and made from modern alcohol extraction techniques. Each capsule contains 0.34 grams of PSP. Experimental in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown PSP inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells including P338 leukemia cells, S 180 cells, Ehrlich ascites, and stomach and lung cancer cells. It also inhibits the growth of some tumors such as the lymphatic tumor of human skin tissue cells. In addition, PSP affects the immune system of mice by stimulating the production of ?\interferons, increasing the phagocytic index and metabolic rate of the reticuloendothilial system and by raising the HC 50 (median hemolytic dose), IgG and PFC (plaque forming cell) values. Human in-vivo experiments have also shown PSP can modulate the immune system by helping to prevent and partly eliminate the side effects of radiation and chemotherapeutic agents used by cancer patients.
Coriolus versicolor is a mushroom used in traditional Asian herbal remedies (see Chinese Herbal Medicine). Two substances extracted from
the mushroom, polysaccharides K (PSK) and polysaccharides-peptide (PSP), are being studied as possible complementary cancer treatments.
Versicolor polysaccharides (VPS), another extract from the mushroom that is sold as a dietary supplement in the United States, is also being studied. A polysaccharide is a carbohydrate formed by a large number of sugar molecules.
Polysaccharide-K (polysaccharide-Kureha; PSK), also known as krestin, is a unique protein-bound polysaccharide, which has been used as a chemoimmunotherapy agent in the treatment of cancer in Asia for over 30 years. PSK and Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) are both protein-bound polysaccharides which are derived from the CM-101 and COV-1 strains of the fungus Coriolus versicolor by Japanese and Chinese researchers, respectively. Both polysaccharide preparations have documented anticancer activity in vitro, in vivo and in human clinical trials, though PSK has been researched longer and has therefore undergone more thorough laboratory, animal and clinical testing. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that PSK has great potential as an adjuvant cancer therapy agent, with positive results seen in the adjuvant
treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as an immunotherapy or biological response modifier (BRM). BRMs potentially have the ability to improve the “host versus tumor response,” thereby increasing the ability of the host to defend itself from tumor progression. The mechanisms of biological response modification by PSK have yet to be clearly and completely elucidated. Some studies suggest that PSK may act to increase leukocyte activation and response through up-regulation of key cytokines. Indeed, natural killer (NK) and lymphocyte-activated killer (LAK) cell activation has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, and recent genetic studies reveal increased expression of key immune cytokines in response to treatment with PSK. An antimetastatic action of PSK has also been demonstrated and is perhaps attributed to its potential to inhibit metalloproteinases and other enzymes involved in metastatic activity. PSK has also been shown to cause differentiation of leukemic cells in vitro, and this effect has been attributed to induction of differentiation cytokines. PSK has further been shown to have antioxidant capacity which may allow it to play a role as a normal tissue chemo- and radio-protector when used in combination with adjuvant or definitive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer, while it may also enable it to defend the host from oxidative stress. Interestingly, studies have also shown that PSK may actually inhibit carcinogenesis by inhibiting the action of various carcinogens on vulnerable cell lines. This action of PSK may play a role in preventing second primary tumors when an inducing agent, such as tobacco or asbestos, is suspected and may also prevent second malignancies due to the carcinogenic effects of radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Another very important aspect of chemoimmunotherapy, in general is that it may be used on debilitated patients such as those with AIDS and the elderly who might otherwise be denied potentially helpful adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy. Further determination of the mechanisms of these anti-cancer, immunostimulating and biological response modifying effects of PSK as well as of other protein-bound polysaccharides is certainly warranted. Indeed, with modern cellular and molecular biology techniques, a better understanding of the specific molecular effects of PSK on tumor cells as well as leukocytes may be determined. Much of the research that has been done on PSK is outlined in this paper and may serve as a foundation toward determining the mechanisms of action of this and other protein-bound polysaccharides in the treatment of cancer. This information may open new doors in the development of novel strategies for the treatment of malignancies using adjuvant immunotherapy in combination with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
PMID: 12168863 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
U.S. National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health
Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances
LinkOut – more resources
Hayakawa K, Mitsuhashi N, Saito Y, Nakayama Y, Furuta M, Nakamoto S, Kawashima M, Niibe H.
Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Japan.
To evaluate the efficacy of Krestin (PSK) as adjuvant treatment after radical radiation therapy (RT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), treatment results of 225 patients with NSCLC treated with RT followed by adjuvant administration of PSK between 1976 and 1989 were analyzed. Of these patients, 170 (76%) had squamous cell carcinoma. In the patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, PSK was given only when the tumor showed satisfactory shrinkage (complete or partial response) after completion of RT. The treatment outcomes were compared with those of the responders to RT not receiving PSK. The 5-year survival rates of patients with stages I-II and stage III disease were 39 and 26%, respectively, while the non-administered responder group’s were 17 and 8%. These differences are statistically significant. An improvement in the treatment results with combined use of appropriate immuno-modulating drugs is anticipated in the future. When clinical trials of the efficacy of these drugs are conducted, the agents should be given to the patients with satisfactory tumor regression after RT, although they still take much time and cost.
PMID: 9043766 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
U.S. National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health
Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances
Protein-bound polysaccharide (PSK) is derived from the CM-101 strain of the fungus Coriolus versicolor and has shown anticancer activity in vitro and in in vivo experimental models and human cancers. Several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that PSK has great potential in adjuvant cancer therapy, with positive results in the adjuvant treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as an immunomodulator of biological responses. The precise molecular mechanisms responsible for its biological activity have yet to be fully elucidated.
PSK is currently used as an immuno therapeutic agent for gastric colorectal, and lung cancers in Japan. It has virtually no adverse effects, and it can be administered P. over a long term. Consequently, its use need not be limited to the treatment of Cancer, and, as our previous paper suggested, it should in the future prove valuable as a general chemopreventive agent and, as this review shows, as anti metastatic agent. The principal mechanisms of PSK may act as an inhibitor of the motility, invasion, and progression of tumor cells, in addition to its role as an immunomodulator.
Antimetastatic Effects of PSK (Krestin), a Protein-bound Polysaccharide Obtained from Basidiomycetes: An Overview….. View more here:
Yun zhi (Cloud Mushroom) PSP Extract
West Nile Virus and Yun zhi PSP
Now that it seems the worse of the SARS virus is over, a new virus is now being tested for its possible spread in the Lower Mainland. Last year, West Nile Virus was detected in the American states of Idaho, Montana, and Washington. It is expected this year that migrating birds will bring the virus into BC this summer.
West Nile Virus is a disease that is carried by birds, such as crows and ravens. However, it can be transmitted between birds and humans by mosquitoes. Now that warmer weather is approaching there is concern that the virus will spread. Protecting yourself against the spread of this infection can come in many forms. Among those are long sleeved shirts and pants, DEET-based mosquito repellent, and controlling the areas where mosquitoes can breed. The first line of defense however, is the one that everyone was born with – your immune system. The immune system is a vital part of any organism, and protects against invasion by viruses, bacteria, pollen, and other forms of infection. Without a healthy immune system, the body is unable to fight off infections, leading to symptoms that can include fever, body aches, and a rash.
Once a microorganism enters the body, it can multiply, and be toxic to the body’s biochemistry and other organs, or the multiplying microorganism can produce toxins to make the body ill. A healthy immune system will hopefully recognize the presence of these microorganisms as “foreign”, and immediately mobilize itself to produce white blood cells, antibodies, and other proteins to identify and destroy the invading foreign infectious agents.
For most people with healthy immune systems, these symptoms of West Nile Virus will usually disappear after about a week. However, one percent of those affected could experience more severe symptoms, such as confusion, headaches and paralysis, if their immune system cannot learn how to make the antibodies and other biochemicals that are needed to destroy the infecting virus. These people could then develop further complications such as meningitis or encephalitis. Ten percent of those people could die from the disease.
A weakened immune system can be caused by a combination of factors that can include stress, environment, aging, depression, and/or recent illness. Increasingly, many people are paying attention to what is called an alternative approach to health. It essentially involves taking care of the body, particularly the immune system, so that the body can take care of disease.
One approach can be the use of herbal remedies such as Yun zhi mushroom extract. It is only relatively recently that the world has become aware of the immuno-modulating properties of Yun zhi polysaccharides, but extensive research and clinical trials have shown that the regular use of natural Yun zhi can be effective in improving immune system function and response by increasing components of the immune system such as white blood cells, T-cells and B-cells.
Yun zhi polysaccharides have been used in the treatment of cancer and hepatitis in China and Japan for years. Patients who have used natural Yun zhi report increased strength and well-being, increased resistance to colds, flu, reduced fatigue and nausea, as well as regaining a normal appetite. Boosting the immune system through the regular use of natural Yun zhi could therefore provide increased protection against the threat of the West Nile Virus.
THE HISTORY OF YUN ZHI PSP (Polysaccharide Peptide) & China Herbals International.
HISTORY – 1368 A.D. – Ming Dynasty boils the Yun Zhi mushroom for its health and energy (CHI) giving properties (earliest record).
1960 – Japanese doctors create an extract (PSK – Polysaccharide Krestin).
1965 – PSK is used in human trials for various cancer treatments with successful results.
1977 – Japanese Ministry of Health & Welfare approves PSK as the first polysaccharide antitumor drug from mushroom (Class IV Medicine) and an adjuvant treatment for cancer regimens.
1984 – Chinese, with more modern technology and scientific testing methods make a more effective and more potent extract (PSP – Polysaccharide Peptide). PSP is used in similar trials as PSK with even more outstanding results.
April 2004 – China Herbals International begins negotiations and arrangements to bring PSP into the U.S.A. in tea crystals? form.
May 2004 – April 2005 – Mini shipments of PSP arrive in Los Angeles, many people are helped with the use of PSP.
April 30 to May 2, 2005 – International Esthetics, Cosmetics and Spas Trade Show – Las Vegas. Many people purchase, feel great and come back to buy more PSP TEA?.
May 2005 – First major shipment of PSP arrives in Los Angeles, California. Independent laboratory tests it for China Herbals International and provides FDA with results.
May 7, 2005 – Harborside Events Center – Ft. Myers, Florida. Global Health & Healing Expo. Offering a tremendous profit center for resellers such as Day & Med Spas, Salons, Naturopaths, Alternative medicine practitioners, Chiropractors and miscellaneous resellers. FUTURE – PSP recommended pre-operation for immune system building then prescribed postoperation
to prevent viral or bacterial infections and overall good health.
Inclusion in Cereals, Pet foods, Cold drinks, Pasta sauce, Stand-alone single packs in Liquor Stores, Bars and Restaurants for hangovers (gone in 20-30 minutes). Contact: Harry Tosado – 1-877-2-PSPTEA – or go to PSPTEA.COM & download a flyer. Read the testimonials and what doctors have to say about PSP. More data coming soon….