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Medical Studies

Coriolus versicolor extracts: relevance in cancer management

The existing evidence on C. versicolor extracts is positive. The role of PSK as a BRM in cancer therapy is well established in Japan, and preliminary research on PSP is promising. Communities in North America are becoming more globally diverse and multicultural.[…]

Yun zhi (Cloud Mushroom) PSP Extract- West Nile Virus and Yun zhi PSP

Yun zhi polysaccharides have been used in the treatment of cancer and hepatitis in China and Japan for years. Patients who have used natural Yun zhi report increased strength and well-being, increased resistance to colds, flu, reduced fatigue and nausea, as well as regaining a normal appetite. Boosting the immune system through the regular use of natural Yun zhi could therefore provide increased protection against the threat of the West Nile Virus.{…}

THE HISTORY OF YUN ZHI PSP (Polysaccharide Peptide) & China Herbals International.

Inclusion in Cereals, Pet foods, Cold drinks, Pasta sauce, Stand-alone single packs in Liquor Stores, Bars and Restaurants for hangovers (gone in 20-30 minutes). Contact: Harry Tosado – 1-877-2-PSPTEA – or go to PSPTEA.COM & download a flyer. Read the testimonials and what doctors have to say about PSP. More data coming soon….[…]

Anticancer effects and mechanisms of polysaccharide?K (PSK): implications of cancer immunotherapy.

Polysaccharide-K (polysaccharide-Kureha; PSK), also known as krestin, is a unique protein-bound polysaccharide, which

has been used as a chemoimmunotherapy agent in the treatment of cancer in Asia for over 30 years. PSK and

Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) are both protein-bound polysaccharides which are derived from the CM-101 and COV-1 strains

of the fungus Coriolus versicolor by Japanese and Chinese researchers, respectively. Both polysaccharide preparations

have documented anticancer activity in vitro, in vivo and in human clinical trials, though PSK has been researched longer

and has therefore undergone more thorough laboratory, animal and clinical testing. Several randomized clinical trials have

demonstrated that PSK has great potential as an adjuvant cancer therapy agent, with positive results seen in the adjuvant

treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as

an immunotherapy or biological response modifier (BRM). BRMs potentially have the ability to improve the “host versus

tumor response,” thereby increasing the ability of the host to defend itself from tumor progression. The mechanisms of

biological response modification by PSK have yet to be clearly and completely elucidated. Some studies suggest that PSK

may act to increase leukocyte activation and response through up-regulation of key cytokines. Indeed, natural killer (NK)

and lymphocyte-activated killer (LAK) cell activation has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, and recent genetic studies

reveal increased expression of key immune cytokines in response to treatment with PSK. An antimetastatic action of PSK

has also been demonstrated and is perhaps attributed to its potential to inhibit metalloproteinases and other enzymes

involved in metastatic activity. PSK has also been shown to cause differentiation of leukemic cells in vitro, and this effect

has been attributed to induction of differentiation cytokines. PSK has further been shown to have antioxidant capacity which

may allow it to play a role as a normal tissue chemo- and radio-protector when used in combination with adjuvant or

definitive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer, while it may also enable it to defend the host from

oxidative stress. Interestingly, studies have also shown that PSK may actually inhibit carcinogenesis by inhibiting the action

of various carcinogens on vulnerable cell lines. This action of PSK may play a role in preventing second primary tumors

when an inducing agent, such as tobacco or asbestos, is suspected and may also prevent second malignancies due to the

carcinogenic effects of radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Another very important aspect of chemoimmunotherapy,

in general is that it may be used on debilitated patients such as those with AIDS and the elderly who might otherwise be

denied potentially helpful adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy. Further determination of the mechanisms of these anti-cancer,

immunostimulating and biological response modifying effects of PSK as well as of other protein-bound polysaccharides is

certainly warranted. Indeed, with modern cellular and molecular biology techniques, a better understanding of the specific

Molecular effects of PSK on tumor cells as well as leukocytes may be determined. Much of the research that has been done

on PSK is outlined in this paper and may serve as a foundation toward determining the mechanisms of action of this and

other protein-bound polysaccharides in the treatment of cancer. This information may open new doors in the development

of novel strategies for the treatment of malignancies using adjuvant immunotherapy in combination with surgery,

chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.[…]

The culture duration affects the immunomodulatory and anticancer effect of polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor

Flow cytometry analysis on cell cycle and cell death (apoptosis) of Molt 4 cells indicated that the anticancer mechanism of PSP is related to its ability to induce S-phase cell arrest and apoptosis, respectively. Together, these results suggest that monitor the harvest duration is critical for the quality control of polysaccharopeptide in the biotechnological industry.[…]

[Randomized controlled study on adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer. The Cooperative Study Group of Surgical Adjuvant Immunochemotherapy for Cancer of Colon and Rectum]

To evaluate of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer, randomized controlled

study by 35 institutions in Kanagawa prefecture was conducted. From March 1985 till February 1987, 462 patients were

assigned one of two different regimens. 448 patients (97.0%) of them satisfied the eligibility criteria. Control group

received mitomycin C intravenously on the day and the day after the operations respectively followed by 5-FU orally over

for 6 months. PSK group received in addition to mitomycin C and 5-FU as in control group, PSK orally for over 3 years. By

February 1989, follow up studies of the patients after their operations had been carried out for two years to four years.

The disease free curve and the survival curve of PSK group were higher than those of control group, differences between

the two groups were statistically significant (Disease free curve: P = 0.0096, survival curve: p = 0.0391). From these

results, adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK was considered beneficial for curatively resected colorectal cancer.[…]

The Electrophretical Analysis of the Components of Polysaccharide-peptide (PSP)

The components of polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) are analysed by electrophoresis of cellulose acetate membrance and of polyacrylamide gel. The result shows that there are 2 kinds of glycoprotein and 2 kinds of polysaccharide. There are obvious differences between the numbers of components and the nature of electrophoresis of PSP and the polysaccharides of the fruit-bodies of Yun Zhi (CVP).[…]

Usefulness of immunomodulators for maturation of dendritic cells.

Biological response modifiers (BRMs) augment the cytotoxic activity of various effector cells by the induction of multiple

cytokines and suppression of immunosuppressive factors. BRMs are used extensively in adjuvant therapy for gastric

cancer in Japan. In dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccine therapy, the quality of DCs is important in inducing strong antitumor

immunity. A good manufacturing practice (GMP) grade agent for DCs maturation is desirable for safety. Here we report

the effects of two BRMs, OK432 and PSK, which are GMP grade agents for the functional maturation of DCs. OK432 and

PSK were examined in vitro, and compared with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and a cytokine cocktail (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha,

IL-6 and PGE2). In the immunophenotypical analysis, the expression of CD80 and CD83 of DCs stimulated with OK-432

increased significantly compared with PSK and medium, and this up-regulation was the same as levels of DCs stimulated

with cytokine cocktail. DCs stimulated with OK-432 showed significantly higher production of IL-12 and Th1-type cytokines

(IL-2 and IFN-gamma) compared with DCs stimulated with LPS or cytokine cocktail. OK-432 stimulated DCs could induce

the significantly high level of cytotoxic T cell activity compared with PSK-stimulated or unstimulated DCs. These results

suggest that OK432 is a GMP-grade reagent that promotes functional maturation of DCs and could be applied in

DC-based vaccinations[…]

Stimulation of interferon-gamma-induced human myelogenous leukemic cell differentiation by high molecular weight PSK subfraction.

Among four PSK subfractions, the highest molecular weight fraction (MW greater than 200 kD) had the most potent stimulating activity. This is the first report regarding direct PSK modulation of cytokine action.[…]

Usefulness of immunomodulators for maturation of dendritic cells.

These results suggest that OK432 is a GMP-grade reagent that promotes functional maturation of DCs and could be applied in

DC-based vaccinations.[…]