Cloud mushroom contains several saccharides including polysaccharide peptide (PSP) and polysaccharide-K (PSK, krestin). The protein bound polysaccharides have been found to be immune-modulating and anti-tumor, and their polypeptide moieties are rich in aspartic acid and glutamic acid. By gas chromatography and HPLC, PSP has proved that in addition to glucose, it also contains five other monosaccharides – mannose, xylose, galactose, rhamnose and arabinose. The polysaccharide peptides can be found in the mycelium, while the fruiting body mainly contains polysaccharides
Recent evidence suggested that prostate cancer stem/progenitor cells (CSC) are responsible for cancer initiation as well as disease progression. Unfortunately, conventional therapies are only effective in targeting the more differentiated cancer cells and spare the CSCs. Here, we report that PSP, an active component extracted from the mushroom Turkey tail (also known as Coriolus versicolor), is effective in targeting prostate CSCs. We found that treatment of the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 with PSP led to the down-regulation of CSC markers (CD133 and CD44) in a time and dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, PSP treatment not only suppressed the ability of PC-3 cells to form prostaspheres under non-adherent culture conditions, but also inhibited their tumorigenicity in vivo, further proving that PSP can suppress prostate CSC properties. To investigate if the anti-CSC effect of PSP may lead to prostate cancer chemoprevention, transgenic mice (TgMAP) that spontaneously develop prostate tumors were orally fed with PSP for 20 weeks. Whereas 100% of the mice that fed with water only developed prostate tumors at the end of experiment, no tumors could be found in any of the mice fed with PSP, suggesting that PSP treatment can completely inhibit prostate tumor formation. Our results not only demonstrated the intriguing anti-CSC effect of PSP, but also revealed, for the first time, the surprising chemopreventive property of oral PSP consumption against prostate cancer.
ScienceDaily (May 24, 2011) — A mushroom used in Asia for its medicinal benefits has been found to be 100 percent effective in suppressing prostate tumour development in mice during early trials, new Queensland University of Technology (QUT) research shows.
The compound, polysaccharopeptide (PSP), which is extracted from the ‘turkey tail’ mushroom, was found to target prostate cancer stem cells and suppress tumour formation in mice, according to an article written by senior research fellow Dr Patrick Ling in the online journal PLoS ONE, published by the Public Library of Science.
Dr Ling, from the Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre-Queensland and Institute for Biomedical Health & Innovation (IHBI) at QUT, said the results could be an important step towards fighting a disease that kills 3,000 Australian men a year.
“The findings are quite significant,” Dr Ling said.
“What we wanted to demonstrate was whether that compound could stop the development of prostate tumours in the first place.
“In the past, other inhibitors tested in research trials have been shown to be up to 70 percent effective, but we’re seeing 100 percent of this tumour prevented from developing with PSP.
“Importantly, we did not see any side effects from the treatment.”
Dr Ling said conventional therapies were only effective in targeting certain cancer cells, not cancer stem cells, which initiated cancer and caused the disease to progress.
During the research trial, which was done in collaboration with The University of Hong Kong and Provital Pty Ltd, transgenic mice that developed prostate tumours were fed PSP for 20 weeks.
Dr Ling said no tumours were found in any of the mice fed PSP, whereas mice not given the treatment developed prostate tumours. He said the research suggested that PSP treatment could completely inhibit prostate tumour formation.
“Our findings support that PSP may be a potent preventative agent against prostate cancer, possibly through targeting of the prostate cancer stem cell population,” he said.
He said PSP had been previously shown to possess anti-cancer properties, and ‘turkey tail’ mushrooms (known as Coriolus versicolor or Yun-zhi) had been widely used in Asia for medicinal benefits.
However, Dr Ling said it was the first time it had been demonstrated that PSP had anti-cancer stem cell effects.
Although ‘turkey tail’ mushrooms had valuable health properties, Dr Ling said it would not be possible to get the same benefit his research showed from simply eating them.
A fundraiser has been organised in September to support further tests for the therapeutic potential of PSP against prostate tumours either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer compounds.
Polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) is a protein bound polysaccharides isolated from the COV-1 strain of Yunzhi (Coriolous versicolor mushroom) and made from modern alcohol extraction techniques. Each capsule contains 0.34 grams of PSP. Experimental in-vitro and in-vivo studies have shown PSP inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells including P338 leukemia cells, S 180 cells, Ehrlich ascites, and stomach and lung cancer cells. It also inhibits the growth of some tumors such as the lymphatic tumor of human skin tissue cells. In addition, PSP affects the immune system of mice by stimulating the production of ?\interferons, increasing the phagocytic index and metabolic rate of the reticuloendothilial system and by raising the HC 50 (median hemolytic dose), IgG and PFC (plaque forming cell) values. Human in-vivo experiments have also shown PSP can modulate the immune system by helping to prevent and partly eliminate the side effects of radiation and chemotherapeutic agents used by cancer patients.
Cheuk-Lun Lee, Xiaotong Yang, Jennifer Man-Fan Wan
Department of Zoology, Kardoorie Biological Science Building, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China
Received 24 December 2003; accepted 5 October 2004
Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) derives from the medicinal mushroom Coriolus versicolor is considered a biological response modifier with potential pharmaceutical applications. Significant literatures support the immune and anticancer functions of PSP; however, standardization is of big concern because variable biotechnological factors can affect both the chemical and biological properties of PSP. In this study, the extracts of PSP obtained at different days from the Coriolus versicolor culture were tested in vitro for their immune function on human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cytotoxicity on the human leukemia Molt 4 cells. Over the 10-days culture period, both biomass and peptide/polysaccharide content were increased with time. The increase in proliferation index of PBMC and their production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1_), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-_) and gamma interferon (IFN-_) in the presence of PHA strengthens the correlation between culture duration and biological potency of PSP. The growth inhibition of the Molt 4 cells by PSP also depended on its maturity. Flow cytometry analysis on cell cycle and cell death (apoptosis) of Molt 4 cells indicated that the anticancer mechanism of PSP is related to its ability to induce S-phase cell arrest and apoptosis, respectively. Together, these results suggest that monitor the harvest duration is critical for the quality control of polysaccharopeptide in the biotechnological industry.
© 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Coriolus versicolor; Polysaccharopeptide; Flow cytometry; High performance liquid chromatography; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Molt 4
Display Settings: Abstract
Anticancer Res. 1990 Jan-Feb;10(1):55-8.
Kim F, Sakagami H, Tanuma S, Konno K.
First Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan.
PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide extracted from the mycelia of Coriolus versicolor (Fr.) Quel, stimulated tumor
necrosis factor-induced cytotoxicity against mouse L-929 fibroblast. PSK also stimulated interferon-gamma-induced
differentiation of human myelogenous leukemic U-937 and THP-1 cells. The differentiated cells had higher proportions of
cells that expressed NBT-reducing activity and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase activity. Among four PSK subfractions, the
highest molecular weight fraction (MW greater than 200 kD) had the most potent stimulating activity. This is the first report
regarding direct PSK modulation of cytokine action.
PMID: 2110432 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
R.T. Chen, A.M. Zhou, B. Xu Department of Pharmacology I Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Academia Sinica
It has been reported that some polysaccharides possess antitumor action. PSP is a glycopeptide isolated from Coriolus versicolor by Yang et al. Its physiological properties have been investigated. In the present work we studied the antitumor action of PSP in vitro experiments.
PSP at the doses of 500 or 1000ug/ml produced inhibitory effect on P388 luekemia cells by 79-96%. At the dose of 1000 or 2000ug/ml PSP caused the inhibition of [3H]UR or [3H]TdR incorporation into RNA and DNA in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells was found to be the inhibition rate 50-80% or 27-47% respectively.
Masahiko Fujii, Takayoshi Fujii, Ken Saito, Norio Takahashi, Chikao Yoshikumi, Junji Kakuchi and Yoshio Kawai Biomedical Research Laboratories, Kureha Chemical Industry Co., Tokyo, Japan
The administration of PSK caused the mean tumor size to decrease slightly and the duration of survival to be prolonged in comparison with control group. In tumor-bearing animals treated with IS, the administration of PSK significantly decreased the tumor size and prolonged the survival rate.
Further studies are required to clarify the origin of IS and its function in the body. For that purpose, the experimental model used in the present study is useful. Serum levels of IS may serve as a parameter to monitor the efficacy of immunotherapy
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U.S. National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health
In Vivo. 1994 Mar-Apr;8(2):247-50.
Kanoh T, Matsunaga K, Saito K, Fujii T.
Kureha Chemical Ind. Co., Ltd., Biomedical Research Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan.
The anti-angiogenic effects of an antitumor protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus
versicolor in basidiomycetes were examined by the mouse dorsal air sac assay. PSK suppressed the mouse hepatoma
MH134-induced angiogenesis when assessed by morphological and biochemical examinations. This finding suggested that
the anti-metastatic effect of PSK is attributed to the suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis.
PMID: 7522606 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Display Settings: Abstract
Cancer Biother. 1994 Spring;9(1):63-9.
Kobayashi Y, Kariya K, Saigenji K, Nakamura K.
Molecular Biology Laboratory, Kotasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan.
The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) expresses the mimicking activity of superoxide
dismutase (SOD). Examination was made of the suppressive effects of PS-K on cancer cell lines cultured in vitro. The
SOD activity of LLC-WRC-256 (Walker 256 fibrosarcoma) cell lines was less than that of NRK-49F (rat normal kidney
fibroblast), H4-II-E (rat hepatoma) and H4-II-E-C3 (rat hepatoma) cell lines. This activity in Walker 256 fibrosarcoma cells
increased by 3.6 times and H2O2 concentration, by 2.56 times by PS-K 500 micrograms/ml. Cell proliferation was
consequently suppressed and living cells decreased to less than 50% of the cells cultured without PS-K. Catalase and
glutathione peroxidase activity changed little by PS-K. The sensitivity of cancer cells to PS-K can be predetermined based
on SOD activity in tumor tissue.
PMID: 7812358 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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