Category Archives: Melanoma

The Preliminary Appraisal of Polysaccharide Peptide (PSP) in Malignant and Non-malignant Diseases

Z.Y. Sun et al Shanghai Medical University


28 late cases of malignancy of all pathologically proven were evaluated. Among them are one case of melanoma, two cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), twenty cases of gastro-intestinal cancers, three cases of bronchogenic carcinoma, one case each of primary hepatocellular carcinoma and multiple peritoneal malignancies of unknown origin respectively.

Most of the cases had surgery, irradiation or anticancer chemotherapy in combination. PSP were taken orally in capsules, total dose ranged from 20g to more than 800g.

A case of malignant melanoma of back was operated for five times, she was operated for the first time in Jan 1982, lymphadenopathy of right iliac and inguired glands began, consequently wide dissections of the involved nodes were done. In August 1983, the disease metastatized to right chest wall and st. axillary glands and resected specimen showed one of three subseapular nodes and one of the eight axillary nodes were metastatic melanoma lesions, the estrogen receptor content of the specimen was 125F mol/mg. On September 10, the same year a total hysterectomy was done. She received 7 courses of CCNU, PCZ and VCR regime beginning from October 1983. Despite the stable condition of her disease, she had to give up further chemotherapy on account of distinct leucopenia. In April 1985, she was found to have GI bleeding, GI bladder, condition improved after Tamoxifen and symphomate treatments. Half year later melana reappeared and right hemicolectomy and partial resection of the jijunum were done. PSP was given postoperatively, and there was no chemotherapy for already more than 2 years. She is apparently well and can participate ordinary heavy work without difficulty.

Another case of multiple peritoneal metastasis of unknown origin was benefited by PSP also. She had mass of 5x5cm in RLQ of abdomen and quite massive ascites. Ager 100g

of PSP, ascites disappeared and the mass decreased to 3x3cm. White count went up to 5200 from 3800, lymphocytic mitosis increased from 28 to 36%.

Two cases of NHL were apparently benefited too by PSP in spite of the fact one each had received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy of waldegers ring respectively.

All the 28 cases except 2, the general conclitims of patients and appetite improved 2/3 of the cases showed an increase of white count of 1000 at least. Around half of the patients had an increased of function of cellular immunity. One case of liver cancer showed marked amelioration of abdominal pain 80 that he could abandon dolantin injection and one case of lung cancer had conspicuous decrease of the malignant pleural effusion.

Five cases of chronic gastrites and three cases of chronic active hepatitis showed remarkable improvement in symptoms and liver function test. HBsAg declined in two of three hepatitis patients.

So far no adverse drug reaction has been observed, there were no impairment of liver and renal functions after the long term administration of PSP even up to years.

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Antimetastatic effect of PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide, against the B16-BL6 mouse melanoma.

We examined the effect of PSK, a protein-bound polysaccharide, upon in vivo metastasis and in vitro invasion of the B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells. (1) PSK suppressed in vivo artificial and spontaneous lung metastases of B16-BL6 in C57BL/6 mice. (2) PSK in a dose-dependent fashion suppressed in vitro invasion and chemotaxis of the tumor cells using filters coated with a reconstituted basement membrane. (3) PSK had little effect on DNA synthesis in tumor cells in vitro, but suppressed tumor cell adhesion to, degradation of, and haptotaxis to components of the basement membrane. (4) PSK suppressed the binding of tumor cells to components of the basement membrane. These findings suggest that PSK may suppress metastasis through inhibition of tumor cell invasion and that this effect is the result of interactions between PSK and components of the basement membrane.

Anti-tumor effect of Coriolus versicolor methanol extract against mouse B16 melanoma cells: in vitro and in vivo study.

Harhaji Lj, Mijatovi? S, Maksimovi?-Ivani? D, Stojanovi? I, Momcilovi? M, Maksimovi? V, Tufegdzi? S, Marjanovi? Z, Mostarica-Stojkovi? M, Vucini? Z, Stosi?-Grujici? S.

Department of Immunology, Institute for Biological Research Sinisa Stankovi?, Belgrade University, Belgrade, Serbia.


Numerous studies have shown immunostimulatory and anti-tumor effects of water and standardized aqueous ethanol extracts derived from the medicinal mushroom, Coriolus versicolor, but the biological activity of methanol extracts has not been examined so far. In the present study we investigated the anti-tumor effect of C. versicolor methanol extract (which contains terpenoids and polyphenols) on B16 mouse melanoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro treatment of the cells with the methanol extract (25-1600 microg/ml) reduced melanoma cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in the presence of the methanol extract (200 microg/ml, concentration IC(50)) the proliferation of B16 cells was arrested in the G(0)/G(1) phase of the cell cycle, followed by both apoptotic and secondary necrotic cell death. In vivo methanol extract treatment (i.p. 50 mg/kg, for 14 days) inhibited tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with syngeneic B16 tumor cells. Moreover, peritoneal macrophages collected 21 days after tumor implantation from methanol extract-treated animals exerted stronger tumoristatic activity ex vivo than macrophages from control melanoma-bearing mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that C. versicolor methanol extract exerts pronounced anti-melanoma activity, both directly through antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on tumor cells and indirectly through promotion of macrophage anti-tumor activity.

PMID: 18313195 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Evaluation of widely consumed botanicals as immunological adjuvants.

Ragupathi G, Yeung KS, Leung PC, Lee M, Lau CB, Vickers A, Hood C, Deng G, Cheung NK, Cassileth B, Livingston P.

Laboratory of Tumor Vaccinology, Melanoma and Sarcoma Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, United States.


BACKGROUND: Many widely used botanical medicines are claimed to be immune enhancers. Clear evidence of augmentation of immune responses in vivo is lacking in most cases. To select botanicals for further study based on immune enhancing activity, we study them here mixed with antigen and injected subcutaneously (s.c.). Globo H and GD3 are cell surface carbohydrates expressed on glycolipids or glycoproteins on the cell surface of many cancers. When conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), mixed with an immunological adjuvant and administered s.c. the magnitude of the antibody responses against globo H, GD3 and KLH depend largely on the potency of the adjuvant. We describe here the results obtained using this s.c. immunization model with seven botanicals purported to have immune stimulant effects.

METHODS: Groups of 5-10 mice were immunized with globo H-KLH or GD3-KLH mixed with botanical, saline or positive control immunological adjuvant, s.c. three times at 1 week intervals. Antibody responses were measured 1 and 2 weeks after the 3rd immunization. The following seven botanicals and fractions were tested: (1) H-48 (Honso USA Co.), (2) Coriolus versicolor raw water extract, purified polysaccharide-K (PSK) or purified polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) (Institute of Chinese Medicine (ICM)), (3) Maitake extract (Yukiguni Maitake Co. Ltd. and Tradeworks Group), (4) Echinacea lipophilic, neutral and acidic extracts (Gaia Herbs), (5) Astragalus water, 50% or 95% ethanol extracts (ICM), (6) Turmeric supercritical (SC) or hydro-ethanolic (HE) extracts (New Chapter) or 60% ethanol extract (ICM) and (7) yeast beta-glucan (Biotec Pharmacon). Purified saponin extract QS-21 (Antigenics) and semisynthetic saponin GPI-0100 (Advanced BioTherapies) were used as positive control adjuvants. Sera were analyzed by ELISA against synthetic globo H ceramide or GD3 and KLH.

RESULTS: Consistent significant adjuvant activity was observed after s.c. vaccination with the Coriolus extracts (especially PSK), a 95% ethanol extract of Astragalus and yeast beta-glucan, and (to a lesser extent) Maitake. Antibodies against KLH in all cases and against globo H in most cases were induced by these botanicals. Little or no adjuvant activity was demonstrated with H-48 or Echinacea extracts or the Astragalus water extract. Experiments with GD3-KLH as immunogen confirmed the adjuvant activity of the Coriolus, yeast beta-glucan and Astragalus extracts. While extraction with ethanol concentrated the active ingredients in Astragalus, it had no impact on Coriolus where the 90% ethanol precipitate and solute were equally active.

CONCLUSIONS: Some, but not all, botanicals purported to be immune stimulants had adjuvant activity in our model. PSK and Astragalus were surprisingly active and are being further fractionated to identify the most active adjuvant components.

PMID: 18640165 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]PMCID: PMC2565601