Cloud mushroom contains several saccharides including polysaccharide peptide (PSP) and polysaccharide-K (PSK, krestin). The protein bound polysaccharides have been found to be immune-modulating and anti-tumor, and their polypeptide moieties are rich in aspartic acid and glutamic acid. By gas chromatography and HPLC, PSP has proved that in addition to glucose, it also contains five other monosaccharides – mannose, xylose, galactose, rhamnose and arabinose. The polysaccharide peptides can be found in the mycelium, while the fruiting body mainly contains polysaccharides
Coriolus mushroom is a fungus. People have used the fruiting body and other parts as folk medicine for a long time. Recently, researchers have started to isolate and identify substances in coriolus that might act like pharmaceutical drugs. Two of these substances are polysaccharide peptide (PSP) and polysaccharide krestin (PSK). Scientists think these chemicals might be able to fight cancer and boost the immune system. Coriolus mushroom, PSP, and PSK are used for stimulating the immune system; treating herpes, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), hepatitis, and pulmonary disorders; reducing phlegm; improving bodybuilding results; increasing energy; curing ringworm and a skin condition called impetigo; treating upper respiratory, urinary, and digestive tract infections; curing liver disorders including hepatitis; reducing the toxic effects and pain of chemotherapy and radiation therapy; increasing the effectiveness of chemotherapy; prolonging life and raising the quality of life of cancer patients; and increasing appetite.
Hayakawa K, Mitsuhashi N, Saito Y, Nakayama Y, Furuta M, Nakamoto S, Kawashima M, Niibe H.
Department of Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Gunma University School of Medicine, Japan.
To evaluate the efficacy of Krestin (PSK) as adjuvant treatment after radical radiation therapy (RT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), treatment results of 225 patients with NSCLC treated with RT followed by adjuvant administration of PSK between 1976 and 1989 were analyzed. Of these patients, 170 (76%) had squamous cell carcinoma. In the patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, PSK was given only when the tumor showed satisfactory shrinkage (complete or partial response) after completion of RT. The treatment outcomes were compared with those of the responders to RT not receiving PSK. The 5-year survival rates of patients with stages I-II and stage III disease were 39 and 26%, respectively, while the non-administered responder group’s were 17 and 8%. These differences are statistically significant. An improvement in the treatment results with combined use of appropriate immuno-modulating drugs is anticipated in the future. When clinical trials of the efficacy of these drugs are conducted, the agents should be given to the patients with satisfactory tumor regression after RT, although they still take much time and cost.
PMID: 9043766 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
U.S. National Library of Medicine
National Institutes of Health
Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances
Department of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths, and over 60% of patients present with advanced stages. Although polysaccharide peptides (PSP), isolated from the fungus Coriolus versicolor, have been reported to have anti-tumor effects, its clinical efficacy has not been properly evaluated.
METHODS: Double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study to evaluate the effects of 28-day administration of PSP (Windsor Pharmaceutical, Hong Kong) on patients, who had completed conventional treatment for advanced NSCLC.
RESULTS: Thirty-four patients, with no significant difference in their baseline demographic, clinical or tumor characteristics, or previous treatment regimes (P>0.05) were recruited into each of the PSP and control arms. After 28-day treatment, there was a significant improvement in blood leukocyte and neutrophil counts, serum IgG and IgM, and percent of body fat among the PSP, but not the control, patients (P<0.05). Although the evaluable PSP patients did not improve in NSCLC-related symptoms, there were significantly less PSP patients withdrawn due to disease progression, than their control counterparts (5.9 and 23.5%, respectively; P=0.04; OR 4.00). There was no reported adverse reaction attributable to the trial medications.
CONCLUSION: PSP treatment appears to be associated with slower deterioration in patients with advanced NSCLC.
PMID: 12814145 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
C.Y. Hoa, Clara B.S. Laua, C.F. Kima, K.N. Leungb, K.P. Fungb, T.F. Tsec, Helen H.L. Chanc, Moses S.S. Chowa
Being one of the commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs, Coriolus versicolor (CV), also named as Yunzhi, was known to possess both anti-tumor and immunopotentiating activities. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effect of a standardized ethanol–water extract prepared from CV on the proliferation of murine splenic lymphocytes using the MTT assay, and the production of six T helper (Th)-related cytokines using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The results showed that the CV extract significantly augmented the proliferation of murine splenic lymphocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner, maximally by 2.4-fold. Moreover, the production of two Th1-related cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12, in culture supernatants from the CV extract-activated lymphocytes was prominently upregulated at 48 and 72 h. Positive correlations were found between the levels of these two cytokines and the MTT-based proliferative response. In contrast, the production of two other Th1-related cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-g and IL-18, was significantly augmented only at 24 h, but not at 48 and 72 h. On the other hand, the levels of two Th2-related cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-6 were undetectable in the culture supernatants of lymphocytes treated with the CVextract. The CVextract was suggested to be a lymphocyte mitogen by differentially enhancing the production of Th1-related cytokines.
(NaturalNews – January 28, 2009) For thousands of years Chinese medicine has prized the mushroom for its energizing and healing properties. Chinese legend is filled with stories of those who discovered the 1,000 year old mushroom and became immortal. In the West, acceptance is based less on tradition and more on the results of the scientific method. Researchers have been busy scientifically documenting what Chinese tradition dictates, that mushrooms are some of the most potent medicines on the plant. Recent research findings have shown the Coriolus versicolor mushroom stands out above the rest for regulating the immune system.
Coriolus versicolor found to be effective against cancer and human papillomavirus
Researchers at the Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York tested several botanicals for their immune enhancing activity using a subcutaneous immunization model of cell surface carbohydrate expression in cancer cells in a study published in September, 2008 Vaccine. They found Coriolus versicolor to display consistent and significant immune enhancement activity superior to all other coumpounds tested. The superiority of Coriolus to yeast beta-glucan, maitake, turmeric, echinacea, and preparation H-48 from Honso USA, was described as surprising. Although the exhibited levels of immune enhancing ability of astragalus was also impressive, it was surpassed by that of Coriolus.
The March, 2008 BMC Cancer reports Coriolus versicolor has shown anticancer activity with positive results in the treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. The efficacy of its protein-bound polysaccharide as an immunomodulator is credited. This activity was independent of its previously described immunomodulatory effect on NK cells.
The journal Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy reports double blind trials on 111 patients with colorectal cancer, using Coriolus versicolor. Although traditional medicine offers little help for colon cancer patients, Coriolus showed a remarkable enhancement of the patient’s white blood cells, even in advanced colon cancer cases. The white cells greatly increased natural chemotactic motion and phagocytosis, the ability to scavenge toxins and kill pathogens. Coriolus was also used with patients as a helpful maintenance therapy following cancer surgery.
The results of a year long clinical trial examining the effects of mushroom supplementation in patients with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) were so impressive they were presented in 2008 at the 20th European Congress of Obstetrics and Gynocology. Dr. Silva Couto and his research team found that Coriolus versicolor supplementation over the period of one year substantially increased regression of dysplasia and induced clearance of the high-risk subtypes of the HPV responsible for cervical cancer. Coriolus supplementation demonstrated a 72 percent regression rate in lesions compared to 47.5 percent without supplementation, and a 90 percent regression rate in the high risk HPV virus sub-types compared to 8.5 percent without.
After using the supplement for one year, 72.5 percent of recipients reverted to normal cytology compared with only 47.5 percent of the control group. Coriolus supplementation produced a 90 percent regression rate in the high risk HPV virus sub-tupes compared to an 8.5 percent regression without supplementation.
It is also likely that Coriolus versicolor would be beneficial in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), a precancerous condition in which the cells of the uterine cervix are moderately or severely abnormal. The lead physician of the study noted that the optimal supplementation period may be as short as six months.
Coriolus versicolor modulates autoimmune diseases
T cells belong to a group of while blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. The activation of T helper (Th) cell subsets also plays an important role in immunity. Uncontrolled Th responses lead to autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The identification of agents that modulate these helper cells is essential for controlling autoimmune diseases. A study from the November, 2008 Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, reported that polysaccharopeptide (PSP) from Coriolus versicolor exhibited the ability to control aberrant T lymphocyte activation through ciclosporin-like activity. PSP alone suppress production of activated T cells.
What makes Coriolus versicolor special?
Coriolus versicolor, also referred to as the turkey-tail mushroom, contains large quantities of Beta-glucans that act to stimulate the immune system. Coriolus can dramatically regenerate and rejuvenate the body. Its most active medicinal components are biological response modifiers called protein-bound polysaccharides. These polysaccharides are known as Krestin or PSK in Japan, and as Yun zhi, or PSP in China. There have been reports of cases of Bell’s palsy clearing up with use of Coriolus for just a few days. Others have found it effective against bronchitis.
Other studies have shown that Coriolus can double the number of natural killer cells after only 8 weeks of treatment. Coriolus has also been found to help patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and may be an effective treatment for Lyme disease.
More research documents the anti-tumor benefits of Coriolus
Japanese researchers screened 200 of the best phytochemicals (plant extracts) known for anti-tumor activity. Coriolus versicolor was designated as exhibiting the greatest amount of anti-tumor activity. In another Japanese study, 185 people with lung cancer at different stages were given radiation. Doctors found those who also took Coriolus showed the best tumor shrinkage and the best survival rate. Another study involving stomach cancer patients produced similar results. Those who received Coriolus survived significantly longer, felt better and had fewer side effects.
Coriolus is first line defense against infection
Coriolus is a good centerpiece for your natural medicine chest, even if you are currently the picture of health. When any type of infection strikes, you will be ready. Coriolus can be used to target any infected organ, gland or tissue. Its immune enhancing properties provide an increased response to deal effectively with infections, and do this without over stimulating the immune system.
Clinical Trial Results Show Proof of Concept for Use of Coriolus Versicolor As Immunonutrition in IPV Patients With Cervical Lesions, Medical News Today.
Coriolus Versicolor, University of California, San Diego Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cancer Patients.
About the author
Barbara is a school psychologist, a published author in the area of personal finance, a breast cancer survivor using “alternative” treatments, a born existentialist, and a student of nature and all things natural.
Source: NaturalNews – http://www.naturalnews.com/025455.html
(Daily Herald – 9/8/2008) When it comes to cancer treatment, I believe that we have finally reached a point where we need to seriously consider incorporating mushrooms into the overall medical approach.
A review article outlining the importance of one specific mushroom – Coriolus versicolor – in the treatment of several types of cancer was published in the recent issue of the Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. The article summarizes more than three decades of solid research that showed patients who consumed Coriolus versicolor or one of its extracts during chemotherapy had better survival rates.
The use of mushrooms as a cancer therapy has been common in Asia for many years. Coriolus versicolor is often recommended because of its potent anticancer properties. This particular mushroom grows on the side of trees in many parts of the world, including the U.S. In China, it is called yun zhi (cloud fungus). In the U.S., it is commonly referred to as turkey tail.
Coriolus versicolor is the source of Krestin, arguably the most commonly used anticancer compound in the world. Krestin was first discovered by a Japanese chemical engineer in 1965 and is approved by the Japanese government as an anticancer therapy.
Standard treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy can dramatically reduce the number of cancer cells in a person’s body, but ultimately the immune system is responsible for killing the remaining cancer cells. Mushrooms contain a number of unique long chain sugars called polysaccharides. Polysaccharide recognition is one way that our cells communicate and how natural killer cells differentiate between normal and cancer cells. A number of mushroom polysaccharides, especially from Coriolus versicolor, specifically enhance the activity of natural killer cells.
There is significant research to indicate that extracts from Coriolus versicolor show activity against lung, gastrointestinal and breast cancers, with more than 140 papers published in the medical literature, including 43 human clinical trials.
Although Coriolus versicolor and its extracts appear to be safe, I strongly recommend medical supervision during cancer therapy. In addition, safety in children, pregnant women and those with kidney disease has not been established.
• Dr. Patrick D. Massey, M.D., Ph.D., is medical director for complementary and alternative medicine for Alexian Brothers Hospital Network.
Source: Daily Herald, Chicago – http://www.dailyherald.com/story/print/?id=232976
Mushrooms are known for their nutritional and medicinal value (Breene, 1990) and also for the diversity of bioactive compounds they contain. The mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Yun Zhi) was recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medica by Li Shi Zhen during the Ming Dynasty in China, as being beneficial to health and able to bring longevity if consumed regularly. Various products derived from this mushroom and claimed to have medicinal value are commercially available. Among them, PSK (Sakagami et al., 1991) and PSP are the most prominent. It is the intent of this article to summarize research data pertaining to PSP.
PSK (Sakagami et al., 1991) and PSP are two chemically related products of the mushroom Coriolus versico~or isolated from deeplayer cultivated mycelia of the COV-1 and CM-101 strains, by Chinese and Japanese investigators, respectively. The similarities and differences of the two products have been pointed out by the Fungi Research Institute (1993a). Both possess a molecular weight of approximately 100 kDa and their polypeptide moieties are rich in aspartic acid and glutamic acid. Monosaccharides with o~-1,4 and [3-1,3 glucosidic linkages constitute the pol~saccharide moieties of PSP and PSK: fucose is found in the latter¢ whereas arabinose and rhamnose occur in the former. Both PSP and PSK have been found to be immunoenhancing and effective against tumor cells.
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The multiple and complex mechanisms of action of Coriolus Versicolor PSP have been demonstrated through in vitro and animal studies. Coriolus PSP has suppressed the growth of human cancer cell lines in mice (sarcoma 180, lung adenocarcinoma and Lewis lung cancer).
It has also inhibited incorporation of two structural units of DNA (uridine and thymidine) in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, inhibited the growth of P388 leukemia cells, and demonstrated anti-proliferative activity against cell lines of human gastric cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma, and mononuclear leukemia.
Coriolus PSP has reversed tumor-induced immunodeficiencies in sarcoma-bearing mice by increasing immunoglobulin G and C3 complement levels9. It has also been associated with increases in white blood cell count, serum IgG, CD4, CD8, B-lymphocytes, and neutrophils, along with a higher survival rate of tumor bearing mice3. Many of these effects have been attributed to PSP being a strong scavenger of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Coriolus Versicolor PSP has also been found to restrict the cell cycle of HL-60 leukemic cells through apoptosis.
These and other immune effects of PSK and PSP are described in reviews by Fisher and Yang, Ooi and Liu and Chu, Ho and Chow.