Antimetastatic Effects of PSK (Krestin), a Protein-bound Polysaccharide Obtained from Basidiomycetes: An Overview

PSK is currently used as an immuno therapeutic agent for gastric colorectal, and lung cancers in Japan. It has virtually no adverse effects, and it can be administered P. over a long term. Consequently, its use need not be limited to the treatment of Cancer, and, as our previous paper suggested, it should in the future prove valuable as a general chemopreventive agent and, as this review shows, as anti metastatic agent. The principal mechanisms of PSK may act as an inhibitor of the motility, invasion, and progression of tumor cells,  in addition to its role as an immunomodulator.

Antimetastatic Effects of PSK (Krestin), a Protein-bound Polysaccharide Obtained from Basidiomycetes: An Overview….. View more here:

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Coriolus versicolor extracts: relevance in cancer management

M. Szeto BSc RD

Cancer patients are increasingly seeking options in complementary and alternative medicine. Natural health products have by far become the most popular modality. Mainstream health care professionals need to engage in an open dialogue with their patients as cancer care becomes more multifaceted.

Read much more here:

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Yun zhi (Cloud Mushroom) PSP Extract- West Nile Virus and Yun zhi PSP

Yun zhi (Cloud Mushroom) PSP Extract

West Nile Virus and Yun zhi PSP

Now that it seems the worse of the SARS virus is over, a new virus is now being tested for its possible spread in the Lower Mainland. Last year, West Nile Virus was detected in the American states of Idaho, Montana, and Washington. It is expected this year that migrating birds will bring the virus into BC this summer.

West Nile Virus is a disease that is carried by birds, such as crows and ravens. However, it can be transmitted between birds and humans by mosquitoes. Now that warmer weather is approaching there is concern that the virus will spread. Protecting yourself against the spread of this infection can come in many forms. Among those are long sleeved shirts and pants, DEET-based mosquito repellent, and controlling the areas where mosquitoes can breed. The first line of defense however, is the one that everyone was born with – your immune system. The immune system is a vital part of any organism, and protects against invasion by viruses, bacteria, pollen, and other forms of infection. Without a healthy immune system, the body is unable to fight off infections, leading to symptoms that can include fever, body aches, and a rash.

Once a microorganism enters the body, it can multiply, and be toxic to the body’s biochemistry and other organs, or the multiplying microorganism can produce toxins to make the body ill. A healthy immune system will hopefully recognize the presence of these microorganisms as “foreign”, and immediately mobilize itself to produce white blood cells, antibodies, and other proteins to identify and destroy the invading foreign infectious agents.

For most people with healthy immune systems, these symptoms of West Nile Virus will usually disappear after about a week. However, one percent of those affected could experience more severe symptoms, such as confusion, headaches and paralysis, if their immune system cannot learn how to make the antibodies and other biochemicals that are needed to destroy the infecting virus. These people could then develop further complications such as meningitis or encephalitis. Ten percent of those people could die from the disease.

A weakened immune system can be caused by a combination of factors that can include stress, environment, aging, depression, and/or recent illness. Increasingly, many people are paying attention to what is called an alternative approach to health. It essentially involves taking care of the body, particularly the immune system, so that the body can take care of disease.

One approach can be the use of herbal remedies such as Yun zhi mushroom extract. It is only relatively recently that the world has become aware of the immuno-modulating properties of Yun zhi polysaccharides, but extensive research and clinical trials have shown that the regular use of natural Yun zhi can be effective in improving immune system function and response by increasing components of the immune system such as white blood cells, T-cells and B-cells.

Yun zhi polysaccharides have been used in the treatment of cancer and hepatitis in China and Japan for years. Patients who have used natural Yun zhi report increased strength and well-being, increased resistance to colds, flu, reduced fatigue and nausea, as well as regaining a normal appetite. Boosting the immune system through the regular use of natural Yun zhi could therefore provide increased protection against the threat of the West Nile Virus.

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THE HISTORY OF YUN ZHI PSP (Polysaccharide Peptide) & China Herbals International.

THE HISTORY OF YUN ZHI PSP (Polysaccharide Peptide) & China Herbals International.

HISTORY – 1368 A.D. – Ming Dynasty boils the Yun Zhi mushroom for its health and energy (CHI) giving properties (earliest record).

1960 – Japanese doctors create an extract (PSK – Polysaccharide Krestin).

1965 – PSK is used in human trials for various cancer treatments with successful results.

1977 – Japanese Ministry of Health & Welfare approves PSK as the first polysaccharide antitumor drug from mushroom (Class IV Medicine) and an adjuvant treatment for cancer regimens.

1984 – Chinese, with more modern technology and scientific testing methods make a more effective and more potent extract (PSP – Polysaccharide Peptide). PSP is used in similar trials as PSK with even more outstanding results.

April 2004 – China Herbals International begins negotiations and arrangements to bring PSP into the U.S.A. in tea crystals? form.

May 2004 – April 2005 – Mini shipments of PSP arrive in Los Angeles, many people are helped with the use of PSP.

April 30 to May 2, 2005 – International Esthetics, Cosmetics and Spas Trade Show – Las Vegas. Many people purchase, feel great and come back to buy more PSP TEA?.

May 2005 – First major shipment of PSP arrives in Los Angeles, California. Independent laboratory tests it for China Herbals International and provides FDA with results.

May 7, 2005 – Harborside Events Center – Ft. Myers, Florida. Global Health & Healing Expo. Offering a tremendous profit center for resellers such as Day & Med Spas, Salons, Naturopaths, Alternative medicine practitioners, Chiropractors and miscellaneous resellers. FUTURE – PSP recommended pre-operation for immune system building then prescribed postoperation

to prevent viral or bacterial infections and overall good health.

Inclusion in Cereals, Pet foods, Cold drinks, Pasta sauce, Stand-alone single packs in Liquor Stores, Bars and Restaurants for hangovers (gone in 20-30 minutes). Contact: Harry Tosado – 1-877-2-PSPTEA – or go to PSPTEA.COM & download a flyer. Read the testimonials and what doctors have to say about PSP. More data coming soon….

Jackie Ans Testimony

My name is Jackie Ans, I’m 44 years old, and have been battling several health problems for many years.  I also suffer from allergy and sinus conditions. After taking several medications for years and years my immune system was next to nothing. I also had been taking five different medications all at the same time to help fight my allergy and sinus issues.  Advair, Albuteral, Allegra-D, Astelin, and Mucinex.  I was constantly getting sick and had to use a lot of sick time at work due to these conditions!  If I worked overtime or did anything that required stamina for any period of time I paid for it.  I was constantly getting sinus and respiratory infections a long with the fighting the asthma.  I was at my wits end, and just felt miserable all the time.

One day at work, Mike Mackovjak, suggested that I should try this new product his wife was just getting involved in.  He stated that his nephew was having several issues with allergies and they started him on this new research drug called Inforce. It is suppose to help people with allergies and decreased immune issues.  So I talked to Paula regarding the research drug.  She explained to me how it came about, and what she believed it could do to help me out with my situation.  I told her “I have nothing to lose!  I’ll try it!”

I was a little hesitant to say anything to anyone about it because it was a brand new drug that nobody had heard anything about.  I do have several people in my family that have allergy and asthma problems. I knew my family would say, “That’s no good, there’s no proof that it helped anyone and you are just wasting your money!”  But, I had faith in Paula; I have known her for several years and she has helped me out in so many ways in the past.  I know she is a good hearted person and I totally trusted her opinion, so I signed up for it.

I was anxious to see what the results would be.  I wanted to be able to say to my family, “Look what this product has done for me!”  I wanted to see if this may be able to help them as well!

Within the first month of taking this drug, I was able to stop taking the Mucinex and the Astelin.  The next month I stopped the Allegra-D, and by the third month I stopped taking the Advair and Albuteral too! I felt fantastic!!! For the first time in I can’t remember when I did not have to use any sick time at work. My energy level was up and I didn’t have to deal with any of this!!!  My family was wondering why I started feeling better all of a sudden.  So I took that next step and told my family about taking the medicine. My Mom couldn’t believe it and was still a little bit worry about the whole thing. My step-father has been dealing with the same condition I have and I wanted him to start taking it.  I even gave them a bottle, so as to push them along.  After three weeks I asked my Mom if it was working.  She said she was still not sure about it and wanted their doctor to take a look at it.  To see what was actually in this bottle!  The doctor was amazed by the medication and gave my Mom the seal of approval! Right away he called his intern in and had her start doing some research on Inforce.  He is a doctor for senior citizens and thought that this may be able to help his other patients as well!  So you may be getting a big client!

I also have proof that this does help.  When I gave that bottle of medicine to my mother, I knew I was going to run out quicker, so I placed another order.  Unfortunately,  my timing was a little off and I did not get my order of new medicine in time.  The very first week I was without my medicine I got a severe sinus, respiratory, and mouth infection. I wound up on antibiotics and had to take three days off work because I could barely talk. For three weeks I have been battling this.  I started retaking inForce again about a week ago, but am still having some issues, so I called Paula yesterday to talk to her about it.  She advised me to double what I was taking and I should get better sooner.  It is nice to just be able to make a phone call to Paula about the product and she gladly answered my questions.  She is a great asset to your company and I’m proud to call her my friend!!!

Thank you,

Jackie Ans

How inForce improved fibromyalgia and auto immune chronic pancreatitis

Kenny, As you know I started with InLife when they first kicked off the smokeless cigarettes! I am a distributor and have been taking InLife for about 10 months and feel like me again and have more energy as well!! I have fibromyalgia and auto immune chronic pancreatitis! Within two weeks my fibromylagia pain went from a 10 to a 1 and most of the time NO pain at all! I was still dealing with my chronic pancreatitis. Well for the past 3 months I have no pain from my pancreas thanks to InForce. It may have taken sometime for the pancreas…..BUT the best besides NO pain is this; When your Amylase and Lipase levels are above the normal range you are having pancreas attack so here are the normal ranges and what mine were and are now!!!

Amylase-normal range 28-100

Before InForce my range was. 290-320

Now. 91

Lipase-normal range 16-63

Before InForce my range 160-210

Now. 57

I take 3 InForce in morning half hour on empty stomach And 3 InForce in evening half hour on empty stomach all before meals! I’m a walking testimonial of how much I believe in what InForce can do! I would love to share this with anyone who is who may have same conditions as myself or anyone who is considering whether or not to take InForce!

Cindy Frost Sent from my Verizon Wireless BlackBerry

Anticancer effects and mechanisms of polysaccharide?K (PSK): implications of cancer immunotherapy.

Fisher M, Yang LX.

Radiobiology Laboratory, St. Mary’s Medical Center, California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco

94118, USA.


Polysaccharide-K (polysaccharide-Kureha; PSK), also known as krestin, is a unique protein-bound polysaccharide, which

has been used as a chemoimmunotherapy agent in the treatment of cancer in Asia for over 30 years. PSK and

Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) are both protein-bound polysaccharides which are derived from the CM-101 and COV-1 strains

of the fungus Coriolus versicolor by Japanese and Chinese researchers, respectively. Both polysaccharide preparations

have documented anticancer activity in vitro, in vivo and in human clinical trials, though PSK has been researched longer

and has therefore undergone more thorough laboratory, animal and clinical testing. Several randomized clinical trials have

demonstrated that PSK has great potential as an adjuvant cancer therapy agent, with positive results seen in the adjuvant

treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as

an immunotherapy or biological response modifier (BRM). BRMs potentially have the ability to improve the “host versus

tumor response,” thereby increasing the ability of the host to defend itself from tumor progression. The mechanisms of

biological response modification by PSK have yet to be clearly and completely elucidated. Some studies suggest that PSK

may act to increase leukocyte activation and response through up-regulation of key cytokines. Indeed, natural killer (NK)

and lymphocyte-activated killer (LAK) cell activation has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, and recent genetic studies

reveal increased expression of key immune cytokines in response to treatment with PSK. An antimetastatic action of PSK

has also been demonstrated and is perhaps attributed to its potential to inhibit metalloproteinases and other enzymes

involved in metastatic activity. PSK has also been shown to cause differentiation of leukemic cells in vitro, and this effect

has been attributed to induction of differentiation cytokines. PSK has further been shown to have antioxidant capacity which

may allow it to play a role as a normal tissue chemo- and radio-protector when used in combination with adjuvant or

definitive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer, while it may also enable it to defend the host from

oxidative stress. Interestingly, studies have also shown that PSK may actually inhibit carcinogenesis by inhibiting the action

of various carcinogens on vulnerable cell lines. This action of PSK may play a role in preventing second primary tumors

when an inducing agent, such as tobacco or asbestos, is suspected and may also prevent second malignancies due to the

carcinogenic effects of radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Another very important aspect of chemoimmunotherapy,

in general is that it may be used on debilitated patients such as those with AIDS and the elderly who might otherwise be

denied potentially helpful adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy. Further determination of the mechanisms of these anti-cancer,

immunostimulating and biological response modifying effects of PSK as well as of other protein-bound polysaccharides is

certainly warranted. Indeed, with modern cellular and molecular biology techniques, a better understanding of the specific

Molecular effects of PSK on tumor cells as well as leukocytes may be determined. Much of the research that has been done

on PSK is outlined in this paper and may serve as a foundation toward determining the mechanisms of action of this and

other protein-bound polysaccharides in the treatment of cancer. This information may open new doors in the development

of novel strategies for the treatment of malignancies using adjuvant immunotherapy in combination with surgery,

chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

PMID: 12168863 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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The culture duration affects the immunomodulatory and anticancer effect of polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor

Cheuk-Lun Lee, Xiaotong Yang, Jennifer Man-Fan Wan

Department of Zoology, Kardoorie Biological Science Building, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, China

Received 24 December 2003; accepted 5 October 2004


Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) derives from the medicinal mushroom Coriolus versicolor is considered a biological response modifier with potential pharmaceutical applications. Significant literatures support the immune and anticancer functions of PSP; however, standardization is of big concern because variable biotechnological factors can affect both the chemical and biological properties of PSP. In this study, the extracts of PSP obtained at different days from the Coriolus versicolor culture were tested in vitro for their immune function on human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and cytotoxicity on the human leukemia Molt 4 cells. Over the 10-days culture period, both biomass and peptide/polysaccharide content were increased with time. The increase in proliferation index of PBMC and their production of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1_), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-_) and gamma interferon (IFN-_) in the presence of PHA strengthens the correlation between culture duration and biological potency of PSP. The growth inhibition of the Molt 4 cells by PSP also depended on its maturity. Flow cytometry analysis on cell cycle and cell death (apoptosis) of Molt 4 cells indicated that the anticancer mechanism of PSP is related to its ability to induce S-phase cell arrest and apoptosis, respectively. Together, these results suggest that monitor the harvest duration is critical for the quality control of polysaccharopeptide in the biotechnological industry.

© 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Coriolus versicolor; Polysaccharopeptide; Flow cytometry; High performance liquid chromatography; Peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Molt 4

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[Randomized controlled study on adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer. The Cooperative Study Group of Surgical Adjuvant Immunochemotherapy for Cancer of Colon and Rectum]

[Article in Japanese]

Mitomi T, Tsuchiya S, Iijima N, Aso K, Suzuki K, Nishiyama K, Amano T, Takahashi T, Murayama N, Oka H, et al.

Dept. of Surgery II, Tokai University.


To evaluate of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer, randomized controlled

study by 35 institutions in Kanagawa prefecture was conducted. From March 1985 till February 1987, 462 patients were

assigned one of two different regimens. 448 patients (97.0%) of them satisfied the eligibility criteria. Control group

received mitomycin C intravenously on the day and the day after the operations respectively followed by 5-FU orally over

for 6 months. PSK group received in addition to mitomycin C and 5-FU as in control group, PSK orally for over 3 years. By

February 1989, follow up studies of the patients after their operations had been carried out for two years to four years.

The disease free curve and the survival curve of PSK group were higher than those of control group, differences between

the two groups were statistically significant (Disease free curve: P = 0.0096, survival curve: p = 0.0391). From these

results, adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK was considered beneficial for curatively resected colorectal cancer.

PMID: 2500070 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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The Electrophretical Analysis of the Components of Polysaccharide-peptide (PSP)

Xiao-tong Yang and Yong Zhuang Shanghai Teachers University


The components of polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) are analysed by electrophoresis of cellulose acetate membrance and of polyacrylamide gel. The result shows that there are 2 kinds of glycoprotein and 2 kinds of polysaccharide. There are obvious differences between the numbers of components and the nature of electrophoresis of PSP and the polysaccharides of the fruit-bodies of Yun Zhi (CVP).

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