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Antimetastatic Effects of PSK (Krestin), a Protein-bound Polysaccharide Obtained from Basidiomycetes: An Overview

PSK is currently used as an immuno therapeutic agent for gastric colorectal, and lung cancers in Japan. It has virtually no adverse effects, and it can be administered P. over a long term. Consequently, its use need not be limited to the treatment of Cancer, and, as our previous paper suggested, it should in the future prove valuable as a general chemopreventive agent and, as this review shows, as anti metastatic agent. The principal mechanisms of PSK may act as an inhibitor of the motility, invasion, and progression of tumor cells, in addition to its role as an immunomodulator.[…]

Coriolus versicolor extracts: relevance in cancer management

The existing evidence on C. versicolor extracts is positive. The role of PSK as a BRM in cancer therapy is well established in Japan, and preliminary research on PSP is promising. Communities in North America are becoming more globally diverse and multicultural.[…]

Yun zhi (Cloud Mushroom) PSP Extract- West Nile Virus and Yun zhi PSP

Yun zhi polysaccharides have been used in the treatment of cancer and hepatitis in China and Japan for years. Patients who have used natural Yun zhi report increased strength and well-being, increased resistance to colds, flu, reduced fatigue and nausea, as well as regaining a normal appetite. Boosting the immune system through the regular use of natural Yun zhi could therefore provide increased protection against the threat of the West Nile Virus.{…}

THE HISTORY OF YUN ZHI PSP (Polysaccharide Peptide) & China Herbals International.

Inclusion in Cereals, Pet foods, Cold drinks, Pasta sauce, Stand-alone single packs in Liquor Stores, Bars and Restaurants for hangovers (gone in 20-30 minutes). Contact: Harry Tosado – 1-877-2-PSPTEA – or go to PSPTEA.COM & download a flyer. Read the testimonials and what doctors have to say about PSP. More data coming soon….[…]

Jackie Ans Testimony

My name is Jackie Ans, I’m 44 years old, and have been battling several health problems for many years. I also suffer from allergy and sinus conditions. After taking several medications for years and years my immune system was next to nothing. I also had been taking five different medications all at the same time to help fight my allergy and sinus issues. […]

How inForce improved fibromyalgia and auto immune chronic pancreatitis

I take 3 InForce in morning half hour on empty stomach And 3 InForce in evening half hour on empty stomach all before meals! I’m a walking testimonial of how much I believe in what InForce can do! I would love to share this with anyone who is who may have same conditions as myself or anyone who is considering whether or not to take InForce![…]

Anticancer effects and mechanisms of polysaccharide?K (PSK): implications of cancer immunotherapy.

Polysaccharide-K (polysaccharide-Kureha; PSK), also known as krestin, is a unique protein-bound polysaccharide, which

has been used as a chemoimmunotherapy agent in the treatment of cancer in Asia for over 30 years. PSK and

Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) are both protein-bound polysaccharides which are derived from the CM-101 and COV-1 strains

of the fungus Coriolus versicolor by Japanese and Chinese researchers, respectively. Both polysaccharide preparations

have documented anticancer activity in vitro, in vivo and in human clinical trials, though PSK has been researched longer

and has therefore undergone more thorough laboratory, animal and clinical testing. Several randomized clinical trials have

demonstrated that PSK has great potential as an adjuvant cancer therapy agent, with positive results seen in the adjuvant

treatment of gastric, esophageal, colorectal, breast and lung cancers. These studies have suggested the efficacy of PSK as

an immunotherapy or biological response modifier (BRM). BRMs potentially have the ability to improve the “host versus

tumor response,” thereby increasing the ability of the host to defend itself from tumor progression. The mechanisms of

biological response modification by PSK have yet to be clearly and completely elucidated. Some studies suggest that PSK

may act to increase leukocyte activation and response through up-regulation of key cytokines. Indeed, natural killer (NK)

and lymphocyte-activated killer (LAK) cell activation has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro, and recent genetic studies

reveal increased expression of key immune cytokines in response to treatment with PSK. An antimetastatic action of PSK

has also been demonstrated and is perhaps attributed to its potential to inhibit metalloproteinases and other enzymes

involved in metastatic activity. PSK has also been shown to cause differentiation of leukemic cells in vitro, and this effect

has been attributed to induction of differentiation cytokines. PSK has further been shown to have antioxidant capacity which

may allow it to play a role as a normal tissue chemo- and radio-protector when used in combination with adjuvant or

definitive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer, while it may also enable it to defend the host from

oxidative stress. Interestingly, studies have also shown that PSK may actually inhibit carcinogenesis by inhibiting the action

of various carcinogens on vulnerable cell lines. This action of PSK may play a role in preventing second primary tumors

when an inducing agent, such as tobacco or asbestos, is suspected and may also prevent second malignancies due to the

carcinogenic effects of radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Another very important aspect of chemoimmunotherapy,

in general is that it may be used on debilitated patients such as those with AIDS and the elderly who might otherwise be

denied potentially helpful adjuvant cytotoxic chemotherapy. Further determination of the mechanisms of these anti-cancer,

immunostimulating and biological response modifying effects of PSK as well as of other protein-bound polysaccharides is

certainly warranted. Indeed, with modern cellular and molecular biology techniques, a better understanding of the specific

Molecular effects of PSK on tumor cells as well as leukocytes may be determined. Much of the research that has been done

on PSK is outlined in this paper and may serve as a foundation toward determining the mechanisms of action of this and

other protein-bound polysaccharides in the treatment of cancer. This information may open new doors in the development

of novel strategies for the treatment of malignancies using adjuvant immunotherapy in combination with surgery,

chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.[…]

The culture duration affects the immunomodulatory and anticancer effect of polysaccharopeptide derived from Coriolus versicolor

Flow cytometry analysis on cell cycle and cell death (apoptosis) of Molt 4 cells indicated that the anticancer mechanism of PSP is related to its ability to induce S-phase cell arrest and apoptosis, respectively. Together, these results suggest that monitor the harvest duration is critical for the quality control of polysaccharopeptide in the biotechnological industry.[…]

[Randomized controlled study on adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer. The Cooperative Study Group of Surgical Adjuvant Immunochemotherapy for Cancer of Colon and Rectum]

To evaluate of adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer, randomized controlled

study by 35 institutions in Kanagawa prefecture was conducted. From March 1985 till February 1987, 462 patients were

assigned one of two different regimens. 448 patients (97.0%) of them satisfied the eligibility criteria. Control group

received mitomycin C intravenously on the day and the day after the operations respectively followed by 5-FU orally over

for 6 months. PSK group received in addition to mitomycin C and 5-FU as in control group, PSK orally for over 3 years. By

February 1989, follow up studies of the patients after their operations had been carried out for two years to four years.

The disease free curve and the survival curve of PSK group were higher than those of control group, differences between

the two groups were statistically significant (Disease free curve: P = 0.0096, survival curve: p = 0.0391). From these

results, adjuvant immunochemotherapy with PSK was considered beneficial for curatively resected colorectal cancer.[…]

The Electrophretical Analysis of the Components of Polysaccharide-peptide (PSP)

The components of polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) are analysed by electrophoresis of cellulose acetate membrance and of polyacrylamide gel. The result shows that there are 2 kinds of glycoprotein and 2 kinds of polysaccharide. There are obvious differences between the numbers of components and the nature of electrophoresis of PSP and the polysaccharides of the fruit-bodies of Yun Zhi (CVP).[…]