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The production of extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) in two wood-rotting basidiomycetes is affected by growth conditions.

The ability of two wood-decay basidiomycetes to produce extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) and its relationship with total biomass production has been investigated. Growth and ECMM production by the white-rot fungus Coriolus versicolor and the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum were assessed in liquid culture under different nutritional and environmental conditions. Nutritional, pH and temperature factors all influenced significantly the proportion of ECMM in the total biomass produced. When total biomass production was reduced due to unfavorable growth conditions (stress), the proportion of ECMM in the biomass was elevated. The results are discussed with regard to the possible role(s) of ECMM in the responses of these fungi to stress.[…]

Effects of VPS extract of Coriolus versicolor on cancer of the large intestine using a serial sacrifice technique.

VPS, a hot water extract of the Coriolus versicolor mushroom, was given at a 2% dose level in the diet of female Swiss Webster CFW outbred mice in a serial sacrifice experiment. The mice were also administered either 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH) as ten weekly subcutaneous (s.c) injections of 20 microg/g body weight or physiological saline (PS) as ten weekly (s.c) injections of 0.01 ml/g body weight. The animals were sacrificed at 26 weeks or 35 weeks after the first injection of 1,2-DMH or PS. The number of mice with large intestinal tumors and the total number of these tumors were: Group I (1,2-DMH), 29 and 438; Group 2 (VPS + 1,2-DMH), 29 and 344; Group 3 (VPS + PS), 0 and 0; and Group 4 (PS), I and 1, in the mice sacrificed at 26 weeks. The corresponding tumor incidences in mice sacrificed at 35 weeks were: Group 1 (1,2-DMH), 30 and 323; Group 2 (VPS + 1,2-DMH), 29 and 521; Group 3 (VPS + PS), 1 and 2; and Group 4 (PS), 0 and 0. Histopathologically, the tumors were diagnosed as polypoid adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the cecum, colon and rectum. Contrary to expectations, the VPS treatment enhanced the development of large intestinal tumors induced by 1,2-DMH in animals sacrificed at 35 weeks after the first injection of the carcinogen.[…]

Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators.

The in vitro and in vivo research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical medicines modulate the secretion of multiple cytokines. The reported therapeutic success of these plants by traditional cultures and modern clinicians may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Phytotherapy offers a potential therapeutic modality for the treatment of many differing conditions involving cytokines. Given the activity demonstrated by many of the reviewed herbal medicines and the increasing awareness of the broad-spectrum effects of cytokines on autoimmune conditions and chronic degenerative processes, further study of phytotherapy for cytokine-related diseases and syndromes is warranted.[…]

Macrophage-stimulating activity of polysaccharides extracted from fruiting bodies of Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tail Mushroom).

The macrophage-stimulating effect of Turkey Tail mushroom extracted from Coriolus versicolor (Turkey Tail mushroom) was investigated, and their effectiveness was compared with that of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The purified polysaccharide (CV-S2-Fr.I) of C. versicolor obtained by Sepharose CL-6B gel chromatography stimulated macrophage lysosomal enzyme activity by 250% at a concentration of 100 microg/mL, which was higher than that of LPS at the same concentration. When CV-S2-Fr.I was used in combination with interferon-gamma, there was a marked cooperative induction of nitric oxide production. However, CV-S2-Fr.I had no effect on nitric oxide production by itself. The proportion of C3-positive macrophages in the CV-S2-Fr.I group increased by 7.2-fold compared with the control group.[…]

Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract attenuates growth of human leukemia xenografts and induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway.

The CV extract attenuated the human leukemia cell proliferation in vivo, and in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The CV extract is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human leukemia.[…]

Induction of cell cycle changes and modulation of apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic and extracellular signaling regulatory protein expression by water extracts of I’m-Yunity (PSP).

Aqueous extracts of I’m-Yunity (PSP) induces cell cycle arrest and alterations in the expression of apoptogenic/anti-apoptotic and extracellular signaling regulatory proteins in human leukemia cells, the net result being suppression of proliferation and increase in apoptosis. These findings may contribute to the reported clinical and overall health effects of I’m-Yunity (PSP).[…]

Fungicidal value of wood tar from pyrolysis of treated wood.

The objective of the paper was to estimate the fungicidal value of wood tar extracted as a product of pyrolysis of wood previously treated with either creosote oil or CCB-type salt preservative. The effectiveness of wood treated with one of these two wood tar residuals was compared to the effectiveness of wood treated with virgin creosote oil (type WEI-B) and an untreated control. Wood was impregnated with alcohol solutions of the two extracted preservatives or virgin creosote oil and then subjected to the Coniophora puteana, Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor fungi. The fungicidal values of the investigated preservatives were determined with the use of the short agar-block method and the aging test according to the standard EN 84. It was found that wood tar extracted by pyrolysis of old creosote-treated wood and then used to treat wood may have potential as a preservative for wood protection or as a component of preservatives.[…]

Biocontrol of wood-rotting fungi with Streptomyces violaceusniger XL-2.

During the previous decade, chitinases have received increased attention because of their wide range of applications. Chito-oligomers produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin have been of interest in recent years because of their broad applications in medical, agricultural, and industrial applications, such as antibacterial, antifungal, hypo cholesterolemic, and antihypertensive activity, and as food quality enhancer. Fungal cell walls being rich in chitin also enable the use of chitinases in biocontrol of fungal pathogens, as bio-fungicides. An actinomycete was isolated from the bark of trees of Dehradun in India and was later identified as Streptomyces violaceusniger. This strain exhibits strong antagonism towards various wood-rotting fungi, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Postia placenta, Coriolus versicolor, and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Further, studies showed an extracellular bioactive compound was responsible for the antagonism. The conditions for the production of this biocontrol agent were optimized, and the effects of various stress factors (like nitrogen-deficient media, carbon-deficient media, etc.) were studied. The presence of chitin in the growth media was found to be an essential factor for the active production of the biocontrol agent. The pH and temperature optima for the biocontrol agent were determined. Purification and characterization of this specific biocontrol agent was performed through anion exchange chromatography using a DEAE-cellulose column, and a single protein band was obtained on a 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel. The protein was later identified as a 28 kDa endo chitinase by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight) and by a chitobiose activity assay.[…]

Effects of polysaccharide peptides from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor on glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes in the mouse.

The effects of polysaccharide peptide (PSP), an immunomodulator isolated from Coriolus versicolor COV-1, on glutathione (GSH) and GSH-related enzymes was investigated in C57 mouse. Administration of PSP (1-4 micromole/kg, i.p.) produced a transient, dose-dependent depletion (10-37%) of hepatic GSH, with no effect on serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity. Blood GSH was depleted (6-25%) at 3 h, followed by a rebound increase above the control GSH level (20%) at 18 h. The GSSG/GSH ratio, a measure of oxidative stress, was increased 3 h after PSP treatment but returned to normal levels at 24 h. Sub-chronic treatment of PSP (1-4 micromole/kg/day, i.p.) for seven days did not produce any significant changes in hepatic GSH levels and the GSSG/GSH ratio when measured 24 h after the final dose of PSP. PSP had little effect on glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSSG reductase) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities in the liver. However, a dose-dependent increase in blood GPX activity (30-48%) was observed at 3h, which coincided with the increase in the GSSG/GSH ratio. The increase in blood GPX activity may be a responsive measure to deal with the transient oxidative stress induced by PSP treatment. The results showed that PSP only caused a transient perturbation on hepatic glutathione without affecting the GSH-related enzymes such as GST, GSSG reductase and GPX. The observed changes in blood GSH simply reflected the intra-organ translocation of glutathione, as the glutathione-related enzymes were not significantly affected by PSP treatment.[…]

Characterisation and bioactivity of protein-bound polysaccharides from submerged-culture fermentation of Coriolus versicolor Wr-74 and ATCC-20545 strains.

The protein-bound polysaccharides of Coriolus versicolor (CPS) have been reported to stimulate overall immune functions against cancers and various infectious diseases by activating specific cell functions. A New Zealand isolate (Wr-74) and a patented strain (ATCC-20545) of C. versicolor were compared in this study. The fruit bodies of both strains were grown for visual verification. Both strains were grown in submerged-culture using an airlift fermentor with milk permeate as the base medium supplemented with glucose, yeast extract and salt. Metabolic profiles of both strains obtained over 7-day fermentation showed very similar trends in terms of biomass production (8.9-10.6 mg/ml), amounts of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) from the culture medium (1150-1132 microg/ml), and intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) from the mycelium (80-100 microg/ml). Glucose was the dominant sugar in both EPS and IPS, and the polymers each consisted of three molecular weight fractions ranging from 2 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(3 )Da. Both the EPS and IPS were able to significantly induce cytokine production (interleukin 12 and gamma interferon) in murine splenocytes in vitro. Highest levels of interleukin 12 (291 pg/ml) and gamma interferon (6,159 pg/ml) were obtained from samples containing Wr-74 IPS (0.06 microg/ml) and ATCC 20545 IPS (0.1 microg/ml), respectively. The results indicated that lower levels of EPS and IPS generally resulted in higher immune responses than did higher polymer concentrations.[…]