L.Z. Xu Laboratory of Pathology Cancer Institute, Shanghai Medical University
In the present study the anti-cancer effect of polysaccharide peptide of Coriolus versicolor Cov-1 (PSP) was compared with polysaccharide peptide of Coriolus versicolor CM-101 (PSK) on four human tumor cell line targets (SGC 7901, stomach cancer cell; SPC, human lung adenocarcinoma cell; SLY, human monocytic leukemia cell and Mei, human skin histiocytic lymphoma cell) in Vitro.
PSP had similar cytotoxic effects upon human tumor cells as PSK, both inhibiting cell growth. In comparison with control specimens, the SPC cell line treated with PSP (1000ug/ml) for 72 hours at 37oC showed marked morphological changes such as cell swelling, chromatin aggregation, formation of polynuclear cells and sawtooth on the surface of cell nuclei.
PSK as a new immunomodulative drug had been widely used for clinical anticancer therapy in Japan. When combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical operation, PSK is found to be able to improve the therapeutic effects. In 1983, a polysaccharide peptide of Coriolus versicolor Cov-1 was isolated from the mycelia by Qing-yao Yang. It is possessed of physio-chemical characteristics similar to PSK and designated as PSP. In the present study the anti-cancer effect of PSP was compared with PSK using four human tumor cell line targets in vitro.
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide peptide (CVP) and the bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, tetrandrine (TET) and berbamine (BER), the active ingredients isolated from Chinese medicinal herbs known to possess antitumor activities, concentration-dependently inhibited the proliferation of human leukemic HL-60 cells. CVP did not affect the growth of normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), whereas TET elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects. Morphological observation and DNA analysis revealed that CVP elicited no effect on the morphological features of HL-60 cells and did not cause DNA fragmentation, but TET and BER caused cell shrinkage with the formation of apoptotic bodies, and showed clear evidence of DNA fragmentation. These findings indicate that TET and BER, but not CVP, inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells via induction of apoptosis.
Departments of Biochemistry and Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong.
Coriolus versicolor polysaccharopeptide has been reported to exert immunomodulatory and antitumor actions. The present study showed that it exhibits analgesic activity in the hot-plate test upon intraperitoneal administration to ICR mice. 2. It did not affect ovarian steroidogenesis, ovulation and midterm gestation in mice. It did not exert an adverse effect on mouse embryonic development either, as evidenced by the lack of an effect on somite number, axial length and the incidence of abnormalities in heartbeat, yolk sac circulation, optic vesicle, otic vesicle, shape of body axis, forelimb buds, branchial apparatus, cranial neural tube and head size. 3. Its analgesic activity would add to its attribute as an immunomodulatory and antitumor drug.
Breakspear Hospital, Hemel Hempstead, Herts, United Kingdom. email@example.com
Cancer has been attributed to 3 causes: pollution, infection, and poor nutrition. Conventional treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The author proposes that immunotherapy also be considered. Among other environmental influences, dietary deficiencies and carcinogenic viral infections must be investigated and treated wherever possible. It has been suggested that mushrooms, in particular, have a structure that is immunomodulatory because it resembles the proteoglycan structure in the human extracellular matrix, and both are metabolically active. Inasmuch as mitochondria have a bacterial origin, proteoglycans may have a mushroom origin. The author describes a study which shows that natural killer cells can double in number with 8 wk of treatment with Coriolus versicolor. Also described is an epidemiological survey of cancer deaths among Flammulina velutipes farmers in Japan, which found that the mushroom farmers had lower rates of cancer deaths than controls who were not involved in mushroom farming?
W.C. Xue and T.F. Liu
Cancer Hospital, Shanghai Medical University
There is no really effective treatment for moderate and advanced stages of esophageal
carcinoma. Although surgery for the earlier cases has been able to give a 5 years survival
rate of 28.7%, such operable cases are relatively few. By far the greater majority are
already in stage III to IV when first seen in the clinic, and radiotherapy alone in these cases
has given a 5 years survival rate of only 8-14%. In order to improve treatment results, a
variety of chemotherapeutic agents have been used in combination surgery, but so far no
really effective drug has been found.
The drug PSP (polysaccharide-peptide of Coriolus versicolor) has been discovered and
produced by Professor Qing-yao Yang of. It is a new anti-cancer and immuno-regulatory
drug, similar to PSK (Krestin) but the effective component has been found to be larger
than PSK. Experimental data has proved these properties of PSP, and in vitro as well as
in vivo studies have all proved that PSP is superior to PSK. Of course, as is the case with
all new drugs, the ultimate proof of its value will have to be shown by clinical application.
Data on Krestin suggest that this family of drugs when used in combination with
radiotherapy, there might be an increase of the biological effects of radiation. To do a
pilot study on such a possibility, the authors have treated 41 moderate to advanced cases of
esophageal carcinoma with a combination of PSP and radiotherapy.
We have already reported antitumor activities of fungal and bacterial polysaccharides on mice. In the present experiment, the influence of the sex on antitumor effects on such material from Grifola umbellata, Coriolus versicolor Fries or Sargassum thumbergii and the immunity of mice against tumor were investigated. The growth velocities of Sarcoma 180, Ehrlich solid carcinoma, Pulmonary tumor 7423 and MF-sarcoma bearing mice both without treatment and those treated with polysaccharides were more rapid in males than in females. The regression rates in mice with the above tumors were higher in females than in males. However, a few DS Mie mice with Sarcoma 180 and A/Jax Mie mice with Ehrlich solid carcinoma regressed spontaneously. The growth velocity of Shionogi carcinoma 42 was not influenced by the sex. On other hand, both males and females which had experienced a regression of ascites tumor after the administration of polysaccharides rejected the re-implanted Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, Sarcoma 180, NF-sarcomma and Shionogi carcinoma 42. These results suggest that a strong ehancement of immune response occurs in the tumor implanted in the host animal by the administration of polysacchrides. The combination of X-ray irradiation Ehrlich ascites cells and polysacchrides strengthens the antitumor effect of NF-sarcoma and Shionogi carcinoma 42. Peritoneal exudate cells and lymphocytes were compared between the male and female mice after being treated with ATSO and P.GU-1. Such cells were present to a much greater extent in females.
Forest Products Laboratory, Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Madison, Wisconsin 53705.
Decomposition of C-labeled lignin to CO(2) by the lignin-decomposing fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coriolus versicolor required a growth substrate such as cellulose or glucose. Growth with lignin as sole carbon addition to an otherwise complete medium was negligible.