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November 2010

Effect of polysaccharide-peptide (PSP), an extract from yun-zhi, on chemotherapy-induced cytopenias.

Polysaccharide-peptide (PSP) is a protein-bound complex carbohydrate derived from mycelia extract of Chinese fungus coriolus versicolor, or better known as Yun-Zhi. It has been shown to inhibit growth of cultured tumour cells, and it prevents cytotoxic-induced bone marrow suppression. An animal study was conducted with 24 Wistar rats to verify the myeloprotective effect of PSP. The rats were divided into two equal groups: group A (given cyclophosphamide [CTX]) and group B (given PSP and CTX). The body weights were similar in both groups of rats. In phase 1, all rats were given intravenous CTX 75 mg/kg. In addition, B rats received PSP 20 mg/day orally from 7 days before CTX to 14 days after CTX. Phase 2 was carried out two weeks after full recovery from CTX-induced cytopenia. The CTX was decreased to 60 mg/kg, and the group B rats received an increased dose of PSP 1.2 g/day for the same 21 days. In both phases, the CTX was well tolerated. Nadir white blood cell count was reached on day 4 and all counts recovered by day 10. There was no difference in absolute neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts between groups A and B. We concluded that oral PSP did not prevent CTX-induced cytopenia in rats.[…]

Morphological study of cytotoxicity produced by PSK-induced polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton.

The morphologic changes in PMNs induced by an i.p. injection of PSK, a polysaccharide from the mycelia of Coriolus versicolor, and tumor cells undergoing cell death, were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy. Male C3H/He mice, 8-10 -weeks old, received an i.p. injection of 125 mg/kg of PSK. Their PMNs were obtained 6 h after the PSK injection by peritoneal lavage. N-CWS (Nocardia rubra cell wall skeleton) was added at the start of the chromium release assay using the MM46 mammary carcinoma cell line, which is syngeneic to C3H/He mice, as target cells. During the cytotoxic assay, the cells were fixed at various time points. The MM46 cells expressed ICAM-1 while the PMNs expressed both ICAM-1 and LFA-1 as determined by immunohistochemical staining and immunoelectron microscopy using anti-ICAM-1 and anti-LFA-1 antibodies. PMNs with ruffle-like microvilli adhered to the MM46 tumor cells 30 min after the addition of N-CWS. Immunoelectron microscopic findings suggested that the adhesion molecules were LFA-1 on the PMNs and ICAM-1 on the MM46 tumor cells, but cell fusion between the PMNs and tumor cells was not observed. The MM46 tumor cells gradually lost their microvilli, which showed cell damage, and died 6-7 h after the addition of the N-CWS. This time course of tumor cell death is compatible with the results of the cytotoxic assay. Pretreatment of PMNs by anti-LFA-1 antibody suppressed 1% lysis of MM46 tumor cells from 90% to 10% (p < 0.01). These data suggest that adhesion molecule on the surface of PMNs such as LFA-1 might play an important role on signal transduction of these PMNs cytotoxic function in this experimental system.[…]

Restorative effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides against gamma-irradiation-induced spleen injury in mice.

has the restorative effect against spleen injury induced by gamma-ray irradiation in mice.[…]