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November 2010

Effects of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides on superoxide dismutase activities in mice.

CONCLUSION: CVP exerted the favorable effects on SOD activities in mice. Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides (CVP) exert inhibitory effects on experimental and clinical tumors. These effects are presumed to be mediated mainly by host-defence mechanism, especially immunological responeses. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays an important role in protecting cells against superoxide radical (O2-.) damages and over-production of O2-. or SOD abnormities exist in many diseases. The present study was to investigate if the CVP could exert some favorable effects on SOD activities in vivo.[…]

The ligninolytic system of the white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus: purification and characterization of the laccase.

The white rot fungus Pycnoporus cinnabarinus was characterized with respect to its set of extracellular phenoloxidases. Laccase was produced as the predominant extracellular phenoloxidase in conjunction with low amounts of an unusual peroxidase. Neither lignin peroxidase nor manganese peroxidase was detected. Laccase was produced constitutively during primary metabolism. Addition of the most effective inducer, 2,5-xylidine, enhanced laccase production ninefold without altering the isoenzyme pattern of the enzyme. Laccase purified to apparent homogeneity was a single polypeptide having a molecular mass of approximately 81,000 Da, as determined by calibrated gel filtration chromatography, and a carbohydrate content of 9%. The enzyme displayed an unusual behavior on isoelectric focusing gels; the activity was split into one major band (pI, 3.7) and several minor bands of decreasing intensity which appeared at regular, closely spaced intervals toward the alkaline end of the gel. Repeated electrophoresis of the major band under identical conditions produced the same pattern, suggesting that the laccase was secreted as a single acidic isoform with a pI of about 3.7 and that the multiband pattern was an artifact produced by electrophoresis. This appeared to be confirmed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified enzyme, which yielded a single sequence for the first 21 residues. Spectroscopic analysis indicated a typical laccase active site in the P. cinnabarinus enzyme since all three typical Cu(II)-type centers were identified. Substrate specificity and inhibitor studies also indicated the enzyme to be a typical fungal laccase. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the P. cinnabarinus laccase showed close homology to the N-terminal sequences determined for laccases from Trametes versicolor, Coriolus hirsutus, and an unidentified basidiomycete, PM1. The principal features of the P. cinnabarinus enzyme system, a single predominant laccase and a lack of lignin- or manganese-type peroxidase, make this organism an interesting model for further studies of possible alternative pathways of lignin degradation by white rot fungi.[…]

A cluster of genes encoding major isozymes of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

A gene cluster from the white-rot basidiomycete Trametes (Coriolus) versicolor (Tv) PRL 572 containing three structural genes, LPGIII, LPGIV and MPGI, was characterized. The genes are arranged in the same transcriptional direction, within a 10-kb region, and found to encode quantitatively dominant isozymes of lignin peroxidase (LP) and manganese peroxidase (MP). The second gene in sequence, LPGIV, predicts a 346-amino-acid (aa) mature polypeptide (36.9 kDa, pI 4.31) which is identical with the partial aa sequence information available on the LP12 isozyme (43.1 kDa, pI 3.27). The first gene, LPGIII, encodes a 341-aa polypeptide (36.1 kDa, pI 3.93) which has not been identified at the protein level. However, the similarity of LPGIV would suggest that the predicted product is an LP-type enzyme. LPGIII and LPGIV are homologous to the tandemly arranged genes LPGII and LPGI, respectively, recently described by Jönsson and Nyman [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1218 (1994) 408-412]. The homologous genes, LPGIII/LPGII and LPGIV/LPGI, are 99% and 96% identical in sequence, respectively, and are predicted to encode identical polypeptides, since base substitutions in the predicted exons are all synonymous. The third gene, MPGI, is different in intron-exon organization and predicted to be disrupted by five rather than six introns, as are the LP genes. The deduced polypeptide, 339 aa in size (35.9 kDa, pI 4.07), is identical with the partial aa sequence information available for isozyme MP2 (44.5 kDa, pI 3.09). The MPGI- and LPGIV-encoded polypeptides are 70% identical in sequence which suggests that MP and LP from Tv may be regarded as members of the same family within the plant peroxidase superfamily. Most importantly, this study identifies a gene encoding the MP2 isozyme, and further shows that genes encoding MP and LP can be closely linked on the chromosome and may be coordinately transcribed.[…]

Polysaccharide-peptide complexes from the cultured mycelia of the mushroom Coriolus versicolor and their culture medium activate mouse lymphocytes and macrophages.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the mushroom Coriolus versicolor on cells of the immune system. The cultured mycelia of the mushroom Coriolus versicolor and their culture medium were separately extracted with boiling water. The resulting polysaccharopeptide preparations were designated intramycelial (IM) and extramycelial materials (EM), and were separated by gel filtration before determining their effects on lymphocytes and macrophages in vitro and in vivo. After gel filtration on Sepharose 6B, only a single peak with a molecular weight of 13-19 KDa was obtained. Gel filtration of IM and EM on Sephadex G-50 revealed the presence of a larger peak of 28 KDa (from IM) and 15 KDa (from EM) and a smaller peak of 3.5 KDa. IM, EM and their large molecular peaks enhanced the mitogenic response of T-cells from BALB/c mice in vitro. Splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice pre-treated by force-feeding with IM and EM demonstrated an augmented mitogenic response to Con A. The macrophages of C57BL/6 mice that had been pre-treated with IM or EM showed an enhanced production of nitrite ions. The results indicate that both mouse lymphocytes and macrophages were activated by preparations of polysaccharopeptide from cultured mycelia and culture medium of C. versicolor. However, no direct cytotoxic activity against fibroblasts, hepatoma cells and choriocarcinoma cells could be demonstrated.[…]

Antitumor effects of a refined polysaccharide peptide fraction isolated from Coriolus versicolor: in vitro and in vivo studies.

RPSP, a refined polysaccharide peptide fraction isolated by fast performance liquid chromatography (FPLC) from the crude powder of total peptide-bound polysaccharides of cultivated Coriolus versicolor Cov-1 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of a human hepatoma cell line (HEPG2). The effective dose causing 50% inhibition following 3-day exposure to RPSP was 243 +/- 36 micrograms/ml for HEPG2. However, little or no inhibitory effects were detected in normal human foetal hepatocytes. On the other hand, in the pretreatment group, in which RPSP was administered i.p. for two weeks before sarcoma 180 inoculation in nude mice, the incidence of tumor growth was less (2 out of 5 mice) than that of the control group (all 5 mice). The tumor size of the control group was about 3-5 times bigger than that of the pretreatment group. In tumor-bearing nude mice, 5 days after sarcoma 180 inoculation, i.v. administration of RPSP significantly suppressed the growth of tumor mass. The inhibition rate was 93.6% on day 13. Furthermore, administration of RPSP did not cause any pathological lesions in vital organs of rabbits such as heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney. In conclusion, these results indicate that RPSP acts by directly suppressing tumor cell growth in vitro and the prevention of in vivo growth of tumor mass is probably mediated also via its immunomodulating effects.[…]

Effects of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharides peptides on electric activity of mediobasal hypothalamus and on immune function in rats.

MBH is involved in the immune-potentiating effect of PSP.[…]

PSK protects macrophages from lipoperoxide accumulation and foam cell formation caused by oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein.

In previous works, it has been evidenced that lipoperoxidative injury to macrophages caused by oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (O-LDL) plays an important role in foam cell formation, and that PSK, a protein bound polysaccharide extracted from the class Basidiomycetes Coriolus Versicolor, can protect macrophages from lipoperoxidative injury induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tbOOH). In this paper PSK protection of macrophages from lipoperoxide (LPO) accumulation and foam cell formation caused by O-LDL and its action mechanism were further studied. The LPO accumulation was determined by using ACAS 570. Dynamic assay of the LPO level in eight single cells after adding O-LDL or determination of the average LPO content in a lot of cells incubated in advance with O-LDL for 12 h, both indicated that O-LDL might induce LPO accumulation in macrophages and the effects of O-LDL could be prevented by PSK. O-LDL might cause the changes of morphological structure in macrophages and the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, and the effects could also be prevented by PSK. The determination of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHPx) activities and mRNA contents of macrophages and changes of SeGSHPx activity and mRNA content after incubation with tbOOH showed that PSK might increase the SeGSHPx activity of macrophage and the enhanced SeGSHPx activity may occur at the level of gene transcription.[…]

Examination of coumarins, flavonoids and polysaccharopeptide for antibacterial activity.

1. Coumarins, flavonoids and polysaccharopeptide were tested for antibacterial activity. 2. The bacteria used for this study included clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 3. Most of the coumarins tested failed to inhibit the bacteria at 25 mg/l. Edultin at 128 mg/l inhibited 4 of the 8 P. aeruginosa strains and 1 of the S. aureus strains tested. O-acetylcolumbianetin and imperatorin did not inhibit any isolate, even at 128 mg/l. 4. When tested at the dose of 128 mg/l, the flavonoids (rutin, naringin and baicalin) inhibited 25% or less of P. aeruginosa and only baicalin was active against S. aureus. 5. Arbutin and 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxyl)-benzaldehyde inhibited 3 of the 8 P. aeruginosa strains when tested at 128 mg/l. 6. Polysaccharopeptide from the fungus Coriolus versicolor failed to inhibit any P. aeruginosa or S. aureus strain at 128 mg/l.[…]